Module 1 Key terms.txt

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  1. Phlebitis
    Inflammation of a vein
  2. Infiltration
    Inadvertent administration of a solution into the surrounding tissues
  3. Extravasation
    Inadvertent administration of vesicant into the surrounding tissues
  4. Vesicant
    IV medication that causes blisters and tissue injury when it escapes into surrounding tissues. Vesicatory refers to causing blisters
  5. Sepsis
    Systemic inflammatory response to infection
  6. Isotonic
    Solution that has the same osmotic pressure as the referent solution (eg, plasma)
  7. Hypertonic
    Solution with a higher concentration than that of blood
  8. Hypotonic
    Solution with a concentration lesser than that of blood
  9. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
    IV administration of nutrients to patients through a central venous catheter
  10. Peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN)
    Nutrition delivered into a peripheral vein
  11. Biofeedback
    Mechanism of providing feedback of physiological process to help patients learn how to manipulate those responses through mental activity
  12. Guided Imagery
    Program of directed thoughts and suggestions that guide the imagination toward a relaxed, focused state
  13. Meditation
    Mind-body technique by which an individual can consciously quiet the mind by focusing one�s attention in order to control some functions of the SNS
  14. Herbalism
    Plants and plant extracts used to treat disease and promote wellness
  15. Homeopathy
    Treatment of disease with minute drug doses to activate an illness that then stimulates the body�s normal defense system to eliminate illness
  16. Dermatome
    Body region supplied by a pair of dorsal root ganglia
  17. Modulation
    Alteration in the level of pain intensity (by either increasing or inhibiting it), including the processing of incoming impulses from the sensory nerve to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord; also occurs via descending messages originating in the midbrain and sent to the dorsal horn
  18. Transduction
    Initiation of the pain stimulus
  19. Nociceptor
    A free nerve ending that is a receptor for painful (noxious) stimuli. Found in almost all types of tissue
  20. Hyperalgesia (allodynia)
    State of neural supersensitivity where a slight painful stimulus can be interpreted as very painful
  21. Proprioception
    Awareness and coordination of movement and position of the body, head, and limbs
  22. Kinesthesia
    The ability to perceive the movement of one�s body
  23. Somesthesia
    Awareness of body; derived from Greek words meaning body and sensation
  24. Homeostasis
    Physiological and psychological equilibrium or balance
  25. Fast vs slow pain
    • Fast � pain that originates in the free endings of the large myelinated nerve fibers of the skin; responds to strong pressure and high temperature, thus eliciting the withdrawal reflex
    • Slow � pain that originates in the endings of the smaller unmyelinated nerves that has a throbbing or aching quality
  26. Pain threshold
    the lowest intensity of painful stimulus perceived by the individual as pain
  27. Somatic pain
    Pain that originates from the bone, joints, muscles, skin, or connective tissue. Sharp or knife like in character, usually precisely located to affected areas
  28. Visceral pain
    Pain that originates from any of the large interior organs that occupy a body cavity (cranial, thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic)
  29. Referred pain
    The transfer of visceral pain sensations and deep somatic pain via the autonomic nervous system to a body surface at a a distance from the actual origin
  30. Pain tolerance
    The degree of pain that an individual is willing to endure
  31. Neuropathic pain
    Arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system
  32. Idiopathic pain
    Spontaneous or unpredictable breakthrough pain
  33. Intractable pain
    Pain that is refractory or resistant to some or all forms of treatment
  34. Trough drug level
    Minimum blood serum level of a drug reached immediately before the next scheduled dose
  35. Bioavailability
    Percentage of the drug that is available to achieve its intended effect in the body
  36. Pharmacokinetics
    Phase that describes how drugs are acted on in the body from ingestion to elimination, includes the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism (biotransformation), and excretion
  37. Biotransformation
    Process in which drugs are detoxified or broken down to a form that can be eliminated
  38. Therapeutic range
    Serum drug level that lies between the minimum effective concentration and the toxic concentration. Level to be maintained to achieve desired affects and avoid symptoms of toxicity
  39. Half-life
    Time required for the body, tissue, or organ to metabolize or make inactive half the amount of a substance taken in
  40. Peak drug level
    Time it takes for the drug to reach its highest concentration in the blood
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Module 1 Key terms.txt
Mod 1 Key Terms
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