Module 2 Key terms.txt

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  1. Calculi
    Substance of abnormal concretion composed of mineral salts commonly produced within the renal system
  2. Dysuria
    Painful urination
  3. Erythropoietin (EPO)
    Hormone produced by the kidney in response to low oxygen states or low hematocrit, which stimulates RBC production in the bone marrow
  4. Hematuria
    Blood in the urine
  5. Homeostasis
    Physiological and psychological equilibrium or balance
  6. Hydronephrosis
    Dilation of the renal pelvis because of an obstruction of urine flow or from ureteral reflux
  7. Interstitial space
    Area surrounding the nephron loops and the peritubular capillaries, which has a high osmotic pressure due to extremely high levels of sodium. Renal interstitial space facilitates the massive volume water reabsorption required to maintain fluid balance
  8. Native kidney
    One's own kidney as opposed to a transplant graft
  9. Nephritis
    Infection contained to the kidney
  10. Nephrotoxic
    Having the ability to harm the kidney
  11. Peristalsis
    Successive waves of involuntary contraction passing along the walls of hollow muscular structure and forcing its contents onward (esophagus, intestines)
  12. Polycystic renal disease
    Genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys
  13. Pyelonephritis
    Infection of the ureters and kidney
  14. Radioisotope
    Compound that contains radioactive materials that are used in nuclear scans; the activity of these tagged materials allows the study of substances as they course through the body
  15. Renal
    Pertaining to the kidney
  16. Renal parenchyma
    Cortex and medulla of the kidney that contain the functioning units and collecting ducts of the kidney
  17. Retroperitoneal space
    Space between the peritoneum and posterior abdominal wall that contains the kidneys and associated structures, the pancreas, part of the aorta, and inferior vena cava
  18. Uremia
    Accumulation of end products of protein metabolism in the bloodstream due to renal failure
  19. Vesicoureteral reflux
    Backward propulsion of urine through the valve that normally closes the bladder and ureteral junction to backward flow of urine
  20. Anasarca
    Generalized edema associated with malnutrition, terminal illness, and metabolic fluid overload problems
  21. Cystectomy
    Removal of the bladder
  22. Hypercholesterolemia
    High serum cholesterol
  23. Hypoalbuminemia
    Decrease in the albumin in the blood
  24. Malaise
    Body discomfort and fatigue
  25. Nephrectomy
    Surgical removal of the kidney
  26. Nephrolithiasis
    Kidney stone disease
  27. Nocturia
    Urination at night
  28. Nosocomial
    • Infection acquired in a health care facility
    • Oliguria
    • Low urine output
  29. Proteinuria
    Increase in protein in the urine
  30. Ureteral strictures
    A narrowing of the lumen of the ureter
  31. Urethral strictures
    A narrowing of the lumen of the urethra
  32. Urinary tract infection (UTI)
    An infection involving the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra
  33. Urolithiasis (calculi)
    Refers to stones in the urinary tract
  34. Allogeneic
    A remedy that replaces a patient�s blood or bone marrow with blood or bone marrow from a donor
  35. Allograft
    Skin graft
  36. Amyloid
    Extracellular protein like substance
  37. Anuria
    Less than 50 mL per 24 hours of urine
  38. Azotemia
    A buildup of nitrogenous waste products
  39. Casts
    Accumulation of materials in a space that fills the contours of the space
  40. Disequilibrium
    An imbalance in solute concentration across the blood brain barrier
  41. Effluent
    Waste materials
  42. Fasciotomy
    Incision through a fibrous layer that separates muscles
  43. Hypervolemia
    Excess intravascular fluid
  44. Hypovolemia
    Insufficient intravascular fluid
  45. Intrarenal
    Occurring within the kidney
  46. Myoclonus
    Twitching or clonic spasms of a muscle or group of muscles
  47. Nephropathy
    Disease of the kidneys
  48. Normovolemia
    State of normal blood volume
  49. Parenchyma
    Functional elements of an organ
  50. Perinephric
    Surrounding the kidney
  51. Phenotypes
    Physical, biochemical, and physiological nature of an individual as determined by the genotype and environment. Outward expression of the individual�s genes
  52. Postrenal
    Occurring after the kidney
  53. Prerenal
    Occurring prior to the kidney
  54. Xenogeneic
    Genetic relationship between individuals of differing species
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Module 2 Key terms.txt
2011-09-08 12:44:31
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