During the stone age (40K-10K years ago) what was the life style of the people?
People were hunter-gatherers, usually nomadic. Small, isolated sparse groups
Why is there little evidence of infectious disease during stone age?
- Difficult to study
- limited fossil & skeletal remains
What evidence of infectious disease was found in 17000 year old bison bones?
Using new molecular methods, TB DNA was detected.
10000 what major shifts would have increased infectious diseases?
Farming, led to settlements where more people lved together. Animals became domesticated (zoonotic).
What are the two major stone age diseases?
- Malaria (plasmodium parasite) via insect vector
- Tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis)
What mutation development led to resistance to malaria?
- Sickle cell anemia
- other abnormal haemoglobin
What kind of mutation results in sickle cell anemia?
Point mutation: single base substitution or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).
What are the clinical symptoms of TB?
- Fever, night sweats, cough, blood in sputum
Why is tuberculosis still a problem today?
There are still vulnerable population, and the development of multiple drug resistance.
What disease is assumed to have killed Pharaoh Ramses V and prevalent in Ancient Egypt?
Disease similar to smallpox described in papyrus records. The pharaoh has pustules on lower face and neck in mummy form.
In ancient Greece, Alexander the great to have died from what disease?
Malaria, typhoid and west nile virus. This led to the break up of the empire.
what condition made the medieval prime for disease in town and cities?
-Overcrowded and poorly ventilated housing; poor sanitation and hygiene; non-existent garbage disposal; rodent infestation; raw untreated sewage; and contaminated water supplies
What disease swept through medieval europe during 14th century with high mortality rate with approx. 25 million deaths?
The black death - bubonic plague. It causes swollen lymph gland (buboes) large, painful abscesses
During what era were Beak Doctors present?
During the great plague of London (1665-6)
What bacteria from rats were transmitted by fleas to humans that caused the plague?
Smallpox became to the new world and was a big killer because...
new world population was immunologically naive, which was highly vulnerable to European and African infectious disease
Cholera arrived in Britain from ...
What are the symptoms of cholera infection?
It is an intestinal infection, where there is profuse watery diarrhea, severe dehydration which can lead to deaths.
Why is Snow considered the first modern epidemiologist?
Investigated the outbreak by mapping deaths in cholera-afflicted households; tabulated cases and fatalities and examined water specimens using microscope. 1st study to link disease to contaminated water supply
What did Snow observe about cholera outbreak in London?
approx > 500 deaths in 10 days, and more deaths in households nearest to the water pump in Broad street