9.7.2011 HGA Lecture

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9.7.2011 HGA Lecture
2011-09-08 11:49:49
Human Gross Lecture

Human Gross Lecture
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  1. Components of the Female Breast
    • 1) retromammary space
    • 2) suspensory ligaments
    • 3) glandular tissues
    • 4) adipose tissue
    • 5) lactiferous ducts/ sinus
    • 6) nipple areola
  2. When is glandular tissue up to full potential?
    When women is Lactating
  3. Rudimentary tissue
    = glandular tissue is barely there

    When Men = Prepubescent Girls
  4. Female Breast Lies Where?
    in superficial fascia

    above the pectoralis major muscle
  5. suspensory ligament is what kind of tissue?
    dense fibrous tissue
  6. Size Determinants for Breast
    1) estrogen (genetics)

    2) fat deposition (nutrition/ diet)
  7. Mediastinum:
    where is it found?
    between the two pleura sacs (between the two lungs)

    the median region of the thorax
  8. Anterior Border of the Superior Mediastinum
    the manubrium
  9. Posterior Border of the Superior Mediastinum
    T1 - T4
  10. Inferior Border of the superior Mediastinum
    Plane thru the Sternal Angle of Louis & T4/T5 vertebrae
  11. Superior Border of the Superior Mediastinum
    Thoracic Inlet
  12. Lateral Border of the Superor Mediastinum
  13. Anterior Border of the Inferior Mediastinum
    Body of the sternum
  14. Posterior Border of the Inferior Mediastinum
  15. Inferior Border of the Inferior Mediastinum
    The Diaphragm
  16. Superior Border of the Inferior Mediastinum
    Plane thru Sternal Angle of Louis and T4/T5 Vertebrae
  17. Lateral border of the Inferior Mediastinum
    The lungs
  18. Anterior Border of the Anterior Mediastinum
    body of the sternum
  19. Posterior Border of the Anterior Mediastinum
    Anterior wall of the pericardium
  20. Anterior Border of the Middle Mediastinum
    Anterior wall of the pericardium
  21. Posterior Border of the Middle mediastinum
    posterior wall of the pericardium
  22. Anterior Border of the Posterior Mediastinum
    posterior wall of the pericardium
  23. Posterior Border of the Posterior Mediastinum
  24. subdivisions of the inferior mediastinum
    1) posterior mediastinum

    2) middle mediastinum

    3) anterior mediastinum
  25. Components of the Superior Mediastinum
    • 1) thymus
    • 2) large vein and arteries
    • 3) arch of the aorta
    • 4) trachea
    • 5) esophagus
    • 6) thoracic duct
    • 7) sympathetic trunk
    • 8) phrenic nerves
    • 9) vagus nerves
  26. Components of Anterior Mediastinum
    space between the heart and the sternum
  27. Components of the Middle Mediastinum
    • 1) heart
    • 2) pericardium
    • 3) phrenic nerves
    • 4) vagus nerves
    • 5) pulmonary trunk
    • 6) superior vena cava
    • 7) ascending aorta
  28. components of the posterior mediastinum
    • 1) esophagus
    • 2) azygous vein
    • 3) thoracic duct
    • 4) descending aorta
    • 5) symphatic trunk
    • 6) phrenic nerves
    • 7) vagus nerves
    • 8) inferior vena cava
  29. Functions of the lymphatic systems/ tissue
    1) lacteals (lymph vessels from intestines, carry chyle: digested fat: to the blood stream

    2) provide protection by destroying/ eliminating bacterial cells, virus cells, foreign antigens, dead/ dying cells

    3) collect interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream
  30. Cells of the Lymphatic System
    1) monocytes

    2) macrophages

    3) lymphocytes
  31. Function of Monocytes and Macrophages
    f: clean up the tissues
  32. Two types of Lymphocytes
    1) B - Cells

    2) T - Cells
  33. Function of B cells
    f: produce antibodies → become plasma cells
  34. Antibodies defined
    d: protein made by you because of a foreign substance
  35. Function of T-Cells
    f: "killer cells"

    attack specific cells

    turn into killer T - cells, and T Memory Cells
  36. Lymph defined:
    d: interstitial fluid collected into lymph vessels
  37. Lymph Vessels pattern
    1) lymphatic capillaries

    2) Afferent vessel

    3) lymph nodes

    4) Efferent vessel

    5) Trunks

    6) Ducts

    7) empties into veins
  38. How many lymphatic ducts are in the body?
  39. what are the lymphatic ducts in the human body?
    1) Right Lymphatic Duct

    2) Left Lymphatic Duct (THORACIC DUCT)
  40. Facts about the right lymphatic duct
    1) 1/4 of your body drains here

    2) dumps into the subclavian vein

    3) drains the right side of the head and neck, right upper limb, and right half of the thorax
  41. Facts about the left lymphatic duct (or the THORACIC DUCT)
    1) begins at the citerna chyli (inferior end of the duct) in intestines

    2) ascends from abdomen to throrax via the aortic hiatus

    3) ascends on the right side of thorax between thoracic aorta and azygous vein

    4) crosses left posterior to esophagus (T4-T6)

    5) empties near the union of left subclavian vein and the internal jugular veins

    6) drains the left side of the head and neck, left upper limb, left thorax, entire lower limb (below the diaphragm)
  42. Thymus location:
    superior mediastinum
  43. Thymus forms?
    Permant T Memory Cells
  44. Thymus is the site of?
    site of differentiation of T-Lymphocytes (T Cells)
  45. thymus is found in who?
    children and adolescents, turns to fascia (connective tissue) in adults
  46. Function of Lymph Nodes
    f: filter fluid from the afferent lymphatic vessels
  47. lymph nodes are made of:
    1) connective tissue

    2) lymphocytes
  48. Found in inner medulla and outer cortex of the lymph nodes
    B - Cells
  49. Central Nervous System is comprised of:
    1) brain

    2) spinal cord
  50. Peripheral Nervous System is comprised of:
    1) cranial nerves

    2) spinal nerves
  51. cranial nerves

    -how many pair
    12 pairs of cranial nerves
  52. Cranial Nerves
    -supply what?
    The head and the Neck
  53. Spinal Nerves
    -how many pair
    31 pairs of spinal nerves
  54. two types of Neuroglia in the central nervous system:
    1) astrocytes

    2) oligodendrocytes
  55. Type of Neuroglia in the Peripheral Nervous System
    1) Schwann Cell
  56. superficial lymph nodes (palpable)
    1) inguinal nodes

    2) axillary nodes

    3) cervical nodes
  57. deep group of lymph nodes:
    1) Tracheobronchial nodes

    2) aortic nodes

    3) iliac nodes
  58. Tracheobronchial Nodes:
    near airways, drain thoracic viscera
  59. Aortic Nodes:
    behind the heart, along the aorta
  60. Iliac Nodes:
    drain pelvic organs and lower limb
  61. lymph nodes have a capsule with _______?