Organic Compunds

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Organic Compunds
2011-09-08 14:11:18
Organic Compounds Davis

For test on 9/8
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  1. A carbohydrate a ?
  2. What is the function of carbohydrates?
    To give quick energy
  3. Monosaccharides contain how many carbon atoms?
    Between 3 and 7 carbon atoms
  4. Glucose has how many carbon atoms?
  5. Disaccharides contain what?
    two monosaccharides
  6. What is maltose?
    It is formed from 2 glucose molecules
  7. What is sucrose?
    (table sugar) that is formed from glucose and fructrose
  8. Polysaccharides
    Complex carbs that require more energy for the body to break the bonds between them.
  9. Glycogen
    The storage of glucose in humans
  10. Where is glycogen stored?
    In the liver
  11. In what species is starch found in?
  12. What is cellulose known as?
    Fiber or roughage
  13. Why can't humans digest cellulose?
    Because humans do not have the proper digestive enzymes
  14. What are lipids?
    Fatty acids & glycerol
  15. What are the functions of lipids
    To store energy and insulate around the organs
  16. What is one of the unique characteristics about lipids?
    They are nonpolar which causes them to be hydrophobic (water-fearing)
  17. What are the differences between unsaturated fats and sturated fats?
    Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.

    Saturated fats are solid and stored at room temperature.
  18. What type of fatty acid does not have hydrogens bonded to every possible bonding site?
    Unsaturated fats
  19. What types of fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogens boned to the molecule?
    Saturated Fats
  20. What types of lipids contain a polar 'head' and a non polar 'tail'?
  21. What are steriods?
    Lipids that have a backbone of four carbon rings.
  22. Cholesterol is a type of what?
  23. Proteins are composed of what?
    Amino Acids
  24. What are the functions of proteins?
    some serve as structual proteins and others as functional proteins
  25. Role of proteins in the body?
    • structual proteins such as nails and hair
    • transport proteins such as hemoglobin and red blood cells
    • hormones
    • muscles
    • enzymes
    • anitbodies
    • form part of plasma membranes
  26. Uniqe characterisitics of proteins?
    amino acids are joined with peptide bonds
  27. What is a dipetide?
    When two amino acids join together
  28. What is polypeptide?
    When three or more amino acids join together
  29. The structures of proteins?
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Tertiary
    • Quarternary
  30. What is a primary structure?
    Linear sequence
  31. What is a secondary structure?
    Alpha helix
  32. What is a teritary structure?
    3D Shape
  33. What is a quarternary structure?
    2 or more linked polypeptides
  34. What is metabolism?
    The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body
  35. What are enzymes?
    substances that help speed up a reaction, but are not used up by the reaction.
  36. Enzymes are specific to a particular what?
    Substrate, they only work with substances that they have a particular fit with.
  37. What do enzyme end with?
  38. Substrates normally end with?
  39. What is the active site?
    The location in which the enzyme and the substrate fit together
  40. Enzymes _______ the activiation energy of a chemical reaction
  41. What are the factors that influence enzyme activity?
    • pH (acid)
    • Temperature (heat)
    • concentration of reactants and products
  42. Nucleic Acids are composed of what?
  43. What are the functions of nucleitides?
    Store genetic information, make proteins, and serve as an energy molecule
  44. What do nucleotides contain?
    • some type of phopshate group
    • some type of sugar molecule
    • some type of nitrogenous base
  45. What are the three types of nucleic acids?
    • DNA
    • RNA
    • ATP
  46. What is DNA?
    The way genetic information is stored in the body
  47. What does DNA contain?
    • phosphate
    • 5 carbon sugars=deoxyribose
    • nitrogen base (adeninie, guanine, cytosine, and thymine)
  48. RNA contains what?
    • phosphate
    • 5 carbon sugars = ribose
    • nitrogen base (adennine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil)
  49. ATP is used as?
    An energy molecule that is spent in the body when work needs to be performed.
  50. ATP contains what?
    • 3 phosphate groups
    • 5 carbon sugar= ribose
    • nitrogen base (adenosine)
  51. For every glucose molecule the body breaks down ____ ATP.