_______ _________ translated and condensed Compte's work, and was a sociologist in her own right.
Martineau studied the social customs of Britain and and the United States , analysing the consequences of _________ and ________.
In '_______ __ _______' Martineau examined ________, ______, _____ _______, ________ and _____________ in the United States, paying special attention to social distinctions based on c____ , ____ and ______.
Society in America
Martineau's works expplore the status of ______, ________, and "sufferers"(persons who are considered to be ______, ______ ___, _________, ____, or _______).
Martinuea advocated _____ and ______ equality.She was also committed to creating a science of society that would be grounded in _______ __________ and widely accessible to people.
_________ believed that sociologists should be _________ in their assesment of society but that is entirely appropriate to compare the existing state of society with the principles on which it was founded.
________ believed that a better society would emerge if women and men were treated equally, _________ ______ occured, and __________ existed among people in all societal classes (but led by the middle class).
_______ ______ was strongly influeneced by the upheavals of the French Revolution.
_______ ________ (1820-1903) was a British social theorist that was born in a more peaceful and optimisitic period in his countries history.
______'s major contribution to sociology was an evolutionary perspective on social order and social change.
__________ _______ is a "theory to explain the mechanisms of organic/social change"
The Rules of sociological Method (1964-1895), written by _______ ___________sets forth the idea that societies are built on _____ ____.
"The bond attaching people to life slackens because the bond which attaches them to society is itself slack" - _____ _________
Emile Durkeims terms for patterened ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over each person.
Emile Durkheims designation for a condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society.
In the Marxian framework, ____ ______ is the struggle between the capitalist class and the working class.
German economist and philosopher ____ ____ (1818-1883) stressed that history is a continuous clash of ideas and forces.
Marx beleived that _____ ______ was necessary to produce social change and a better society.
From _____ viewpoint, the capitalist class controls and exploits the masses of struggling workers by paying less than the value of their labor.
____ predicted that the working class would become aware of its exploitation, overthrow the capitalists, and establish a free and classless society.
German social scientist ___ _____ (1864-1920) was also concerned about the chnages brought about by the industrial revolution.
____ ______ disgareed with Marx idea that ecomomics is THE central force in social change, he acknowledged that economic interests are important in shaping human action.
___ _______ emphasized that sociology should be value free--research should be conducted in a scientific manner and should exclude the researchers personal values and ecomomic interests
While ______ realized that socioogy could not be completely value free he stressed that researchers employ Verstehen to gain the ability to see the world as others see it.
According to ______, rational bureaucracy, rather than class struggle, is the most significant fact in determining the social relations between people in industrial societies.
Weber made significant contribution to modern sociology by emphasizing the goal of _____-___ inquiry and the necessity of understanding how others see the world.
In his writings ______ was more aware of womens issues than many of the scholars of his day.
At about the same time that Durkheim was developing the feild of sociology in France, the German sociologist _____ ______ (1858-1918) was theorizing about society as a web of patterned interactions among people.
In "The sociology of ____ ______" he analysed about social interactions vary depending on the size of the social group. He concluded that interaction patterns differed between a dyad, a social group with two members, and a triad, a social group with thee members.
Georg Simmel developed ______ _________, an approach that focuses attention on the universal recurring social forms that underlie the varying content of social interaction. Simmel referred to these forms as the "_______ _ _____ ____".
geometry of social life
______ linked the increase in individualism , as opposed to concern for the group, to the fact that people now had many cross cutting social spheres-membership in a number of organizations and voluntary associations-rather than having the singular community ties of the past.
The first department of sociology in the United States was established at the __________ of _________.
University of Chicago
A member of the Chicago facilty, ______ _ ____ (1864-1944), asserted that urbanization has a disintegratinf influence on social life by producing an increase in the crime rate and in racial and class antagonisms that contribute to the segregation and isolation of neighborhoods.
Robert E Park
_____ ______ ___ (1863-1931) , another member of the faculty at Chicago, founded the symbolic interaction perspective, which is discussed later this chapter.
George Herbert Mead
____ _____ (1860-1935) is one of the best known early women sociologists in the United States because she founded the Hull House, one of the mosr famous settlement houses, in an impoverished area of Chicago.