Card Set Information
Cardiovascular disease 18
sick sinus syndrome?
often requires mechanical pacemakers
premature atrial contractions/beats
extra or ectopic beats. atrial muscles are irratable.
pooling of blood in atria= risk for thrombus
delays AV node, ventricular rate slowed
1st degree heart block
delays conduction of AV node, prolongs PR interval
2nd degree heart block
delays conduction of AV node, increase PR interval until one contraction is missed.
3rd degree heart block
no transmission of impulse from atria and ventricles
ventr contract independently at 30-45/min
bundle branch block
interference of one of the bundle branches
wide QRS wave
effects of ventricular tachcardia
red. CO as red. diastle occurs.
musc fibers contract irregularly and rapidly... so no cardiac output
premature ventricular contractions
may lead to ventricular fibrillation
How do you treat a dysrhmythimias?
digoxin, Ca+ channel blockers, find out the cause, antiarrhymic drug, beta blockers, pacemaker, defibrillator (conversion of ventricular fib)
What is CHF?
Congestive heart failure ocurs when the blood cannot pump out enough to meet metabolic needs
CO and SV decr, and blood begins to back up and become congested
Flow of blood in CHF
Output of ventricle is less than the inflow of blood
Left and right side of heart during CHF
Left blood flows back to the lungs
right blood backs up into ther peripheries.
What causes left sided CHF?
ischemic heart disease
what causes right sided CHF
all the causes of LS-CHF
right ventricular infarction
tricuspid pulmonary valve disease
Cor pulmonale (2ndary to lung disease, COPD, hypoxia)
conpensation mechanisms for chf
cutaneous and visceral vasoconstriction
signs and symptoms of left sided CHF
paroxsymal nocturnal dyspnea
dyspnea and orthnopnea
edema in legs, feet, presacral
flushed faced, distended neck veins, HA, visual disturbance
congenital heart defects
problems squatting, feeding difficulties, pallor, tachycardia, delayed growth/devel... etc
what is the most common congenital heart defect?
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
what happends during VSD?
their is an opening in the interventricular septum
shunt from left to right due to higher pressure in left
incr right side pressure= cyanosis
Valvular defects most commonly effects?
aortic and pulmonary
failure of valve to open to completely
VI- valves dont close completely, regurgitates/backflow
mitral valve prolapse- enlarged floppy leaflets (normal)
pulmonary stenosis- right ventricle hypertrophy
Tetralogy of fallot
right to left shunt (bypasses pulmonary circ)= cyanotic
lungs receive small oxy blood, rest of body receive mixed blood
which abnormalities do tetralogy of fallot include:
pulmonary vavle stenosis
overriding of aorta
right ventricular hypertrophy
What is rheumatic fever?
multisystem inflamm disease
abnormal immune rxn
due to untreated pharyngitits (group A beta hemolytic streptococci)
heart and joints swell
long term effects of rheumatic fever
rheumatic heart disease
acute rheumatic fever
inflam of all heart layers + incompetent valves
involuntary jerk movements
non tender subcutaneous nodules
low grade fever, leukocytsis, tachcardia, malaise, anorexia,
how do you diagnose acute rheumatic fever
ASO titer (anti strepilysin O antibody)
rheumatic heart disease, and what is most common result?
repeated bouts of infection and valve damage
mitral valve stenosis
prevention of rheumatic heart disease?
prophylactic antibacterial agent
what is infective endocarditis? what causes subacute and acute?
life threatening colonization of microbial agents in the heart valves
subacute- strep. viridans
acute- staph. aureas
sudden marked onset- fever, chills, drowsiness
heart valves badly damaged
systemic emboli to brain, kidney, spetic infarcts
low grade fever