Card Set Information

2011-09-13 22:18:29
Penn State Physiological Psychology

Physiological Psych for Test 1.
Show Answers:

  1. The ______ keeps harmful chemicals out of the brain.
    Blood Brain Barrier
  2. Neurotransmitters attach to a _____ ______ on the post-synaptic cell.
    binding site
  3. Non-coding DNA is also called _______.
    junk (DNA)
  4. The long, thin, cylindrical structure that conveys information from the soma of a meuron to its terminal buttons
  5. People who have unilaterial ______ ignore objects on the left side of their bodies.
  6. Glials cells leave ____ in the brains of those who suffer from multiple sclerosis.
  7. Based on observable evidence.
  8. viruses like ______ enter your spinal cord and continue to attack you for life.
  9. This chnage of the electrical potential of the cell from negative to positive is the _____ _____, which ultimately causes the cell to fire.
    action potential
  10. One study found that neurons grown with _____ were ten times more active than those grown without.
  11. _____ are secreted by the endocrine glands.
  12. Axons divide and branch into little knob-like structures called ...
    terminal buttons
  13. Tiny gaps
  14. Has many different definitions, including simply "being awake"
  15. _________ are composed of strands of DNA.
  16. Who described natural selection?
    Charles Darwin
  17. Act as phagocytes and protect the brain from microorganisms--- they respond to trauma, tumors, and infections in the brain.
    (micro)glial cells
  18. The ability to respond to objects you report you cannot see
  19. _______ is the process where glia engulf and digest dead neurons.
  20. Postsynaptic potentials are mostly all terminated by_____
  21. This is using the results of studies to create universal laws explaining behavior
  22. Neurons "talk" to one another with _____
  23. A region of the medula that controls vomiting.
    Area Postrema
  24. _______ is vital in all science-- we must protect the rights of human and non-human animal subjects.
  25. ______ are responsible for the structure and function of all living, breathing beings. their production controlled by genes.
  26. Either a neuron fires, or it does not:
    All-or-None Law
  27. Processes and transmits information
  28. A transection of the corpus callosum would be performed to prevent ________
    Seizures (from epilepsy)
  29. ______ affects more than 350,000 people in the USA and 2.5 million worldwide.
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
  30. (in neurons) This is the cell body; it contains the nucleus
    The soma
  31. (in neurons) this is the fatty covering on the axon; it lets the impulses transmit faster and more efficiently.
    Myelin sheath
  32. (in neurons) These are the communication limbs; they are the receptors
  33. (in neurons) These secrete neurotransmitters to be sent and recieved by post-synaptic neurons (hint: they are branchy knobs)
    terminal buttons
  34. There are the nerve cells. They process and transmit information
  35. Neurons are always very close to other neurons but they never touch. Are they contiguous or continuous?
  36. (in neurons) The part of the neuron conveys information. (hint: it is a long cylinder)
  37. Essential molecules which form body structures and drive processes. They make hemoglobin and build cardiac muscle. Synthesized using a genetic code. Made of amino acids.
  38. Genes / DNA make proteins. This kind of DNA is NOT coding for proteins. It accounts for 90% of human DNA.
    "junk" DNA
  39. This is the most abundant glial cell. They wrap around neurons, produce chemicals, and clean up the surrounding environment
  40. These glial cells guide neurons in embryo development
    Radial glia
  41. These glial cells are responsible for producing and coating neurons with the myelin sheath in the Central Nervous System (CNS).
  42. These glial cells can provide protection against invasion, control tumors, and support immunity in the Central Nervous System (CNS).
  43. These glial cells are responsible for producing and coating neurons with the myelin sheath in the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).
    Schwann Cells
  44. This auto immune disease is characterized by the loss of the myelin sheath around neurons, resulting in motor failure. The symptoms may come and go.
    • Multiple Sclerosis
    • (There is glial repair scarring. Affects 2.5 million worldwide and 350,000 in the USA).
  45. Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis includes this medication. It is anti-tumor and anti-viral
  46. This is semi-permiable and produced by cells in the walls of the brain's capillaries. It keeps most harmful chemicals out of the brain
    The blood brain barrier
  47. If a neuron is not firing, it is at ___________;
    a fully charged firing neuron is at ___________.
    • resting potential;
    • action potential
  48. These are released from the pre-synapse to the post-synapse.
  49. What are the 2 ways neurotransmitters stop exerting their effects?
    • 1. reuptake
    • 2. enzymatic degradation
  50. These treatment medications affect neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap.
    Selective Seratonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) [They regulate reuptake; which allows control over Neurotransmitter levels in the synaptic gap]
  51. This neurotransmitter is involved in learning, movement, sleeping, etc. a breakdown in their functioning has been shown to be linked to Alzheimer's Disease.
    acetylcholine (ACh)
  52. When acetylcholine is no longer needed, it is broken down by this enzyme. In Alzheimer's Treatment, this enzyme is removed to promote acetylcholine
    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
  53. The CNS is made up of what 2 structures?
    The brain and the spinal cord
  54. (in the brain) This is clear, removes waste products, is continually replenished, and softens head trauma.
    Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)
  55. This part of the body recieves 20% of the hearts bloodflow and cannot store nutrients.
    the Brain
  56. A system of 3 membrane layers that cover the CNS and PNS.
  57. The outermost first layer of the meninges; "tough mother"
    Dura Mater
  58. This is the middle layer of the meninges; "Spidery"
    Arachnoid Membrane
  59. Cerebral Spinal Fluid flows between what 2 meninges?
    The Arachnoid membrane and the Pia Mater
  60. This is the third and inner layer of the meninges; "Pious Mother"
    Pia Mater
  61. Caused by fungus, allergies, and tumors, this is a swelling and irritation of the meninges. It is treatable.
  62. At birth a baby's brain is at what % of the adult max weight?
  63. There are 4 hollow ventricles in the brain for CSF to flow. What happens if the flow is obstructed?
    Hydrocephalus "water on the head" ie. infant head swelling
  64. At day 18 in utero, the CNS develops (in the form of the Neural Tube). At day 28 the neural tube closes into 3 chambers (fore,mid,hind). What congenital problem can occur if they do no close?
    Spina Bifida (ie. pics from powerpoint)
  65. TRUE/FALSE The environment can affect brain / CNS development.
    TRUE (ie. hot tub)
  66. In animal studies, how do enriched environments and stimulation correlate with brain development?
    Higher stimulation leads to increased brain activity (also bigger, wrinklier brains).
  67. stereovision is linked with what cognitive ability?
    depth perception
  68. Which of the senses has the ability to regrow functionally related neurons?
    olfaction (smell)
  69. 1 of 3 parts of the brain, this part is the largest division and controls what we think; "our humanity"
    The forebrain
  70. 1 of 2, this is the the first part of the forebrain
  71. Within the telencephalon, the cerebral cortex is the "folded" brain material, known as _______
  72. These are indents or grooves in the cerebral cortex
  73. large grooves in the cerebral cortex, specifically the hemisphere division between brain halves
  74. These are raised bulges in the cerebral cortex
  75. This lobe is responsible for executive control (personality, and decision making).
    Frontal lobe (all lobes consist of cortex)
  76. This lobe is responsible for motor control; the perception of tactile senses
    Parietal lobe (all lobes consist of cortex)
  77. This lobe is responsible for language, hearing, and some aspects of mating. (hint: located by the temples).
    Temporal lobe (all lobes consist of cortex)
  78. This lobe is responsible for vision.
    Occipital lobe (all lobes consist of cortex)
  79. What is the color of brain matter that consist of cell bodies? (The soma of the cerebral cortex)
    Gray matter
  80. What is the color of brain matter that consist of myelination (the fatty sheath)?
    White matter
  81. The cerebral cortex processes what 3 senses?
    vision, hearing, touch [damage to one area can lead to problems with associated areas, eg. vision & touch]
  82. Lateralization: Which hemisphere controls word analysis? Which controls prosody of speech?
    • LEFT Hemisphere: word analysis
    • RIGHT Hemisphere: prosody of speech [prosody is the rythem and inotation of speech, invoking meaning]
  83. The brain hemispheres are connected by what?
    The corpus callosum
  84. This is within the telencephalon; it is a series of interconnections responsible for emotion, memory, and motivation.
    The limbic system
  85. This part of the limbic system is responsible for spatial navigation and consolidates memories (STM to LTM). Damage to this part can affect Long term memory.
    The hippocampus
  86. This part of the limbic system is the "relay station". It processes and relays sensations. It regulates sleep and consciousness as well
    the Thalamus
  87. This part of the limbic system is responsible for the fight or flight response. If damaged, a persron may have trouble understanding fear in others.
  88. this "bump / belt ridge" is responsible for attention, cognitive control, and self-recognition. Its malfunction is linked to schizophrenia.
    The cingulate gyrus
  89. This part of the limbic system helps process fear
    Fornix (Latin for "vault" or "arch", regarding its shape)
  90. this part of the limbic system controls movement. It contains 3 parts called the cauda nucleus, putamen, and the globus pallidus.
    Basal Ganglia
  91. A movement disorder of the basal ganglia, this is characterized by a slow steady loss of dopamine neurons. (hint: Michael J Fox).
    Parkinson's Disease
  92. A degenerative movement disorder of the basal ganglia, there is a 50% chance of passing this disease to the children of parents who have it.
    Huntington's Disease
  93. This disorder causes abnormal movement in one hemisphere's control.
  94. This is the second major part of the forebrain
  95. This is a relay station of sensations to proper areas of the brain (except olfaction).
  96. This part of the diencephalon is responsible for "the 4 F's": fighting, feeding, fleeing, and reproduction. It is a drive regulator with the pituitary gland.
    Hypothalamus (meaning "under chamber" or under the thalamus)
  97. enchephal means _____
  98. This part of the brain is also called the mesencephalon. it is responsible for eye movement, sleep, attention, and arousal. It is the smallest brain division.
  99. This brain division is separated into the metencephalon and myencephalon. It is responsible for waking, body movement, heart rate and blood pressure.
  100. This consists of the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord
    The PNS (peripheral nervous system)
  101. The PNS controls information flow. ____ neurons control info flow towards the CNS;
    _____ neurons control info flow away from CNS (to the muscles and glands).
    • Afferent;
    • Efferent
  102. The Peripheral nervous system breaks further into these two nervous systems.
    The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
  103. This Nervous System controls sensory information and muscles.
    Somatic Nervous System
  104. This nervous system controls the heart, glands, and pupils; the automatic processes.
    Autonomic nervous system
  105. The Anutonomic nervous system breaks down into these two nervous systems.
    The Sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems.
  106. In the ANS, The _______ nervous system controls fight or flight feelings;
    The _______ nervous system controls the rest and digest
    • Sympathetic;
    • Parasympathetic
  107. another name for piloerection?
  108. This newer defined nervous system controls bowel function.( IBS, ulcers).
    Enteric Nervous System
  109. The study of effects of drugs on the nervous system.
  110. These are exogenous ("outside" "generated") and work at low doses. Most of these interfere with neuron communicaction.
  111. The study of how drugs pass through the body; the study of the metabolism of drugs.
  112. (in neurons) ________ drugs block synaptic transmissions;
    ________ drugs facilitate synaptic transmission
    • Antagonist;
    • Agonist
  113. intravenous injection IV
    into the bloodstream
  114. intraperitoneal injection IP
    stomach/abdominal cavity [primary method in lab animals]
  115. intramuscular injection IM
    into the muscle (leg, arm, behind)
  116. subcutaneous injection SC
    space beneath the skin, below epidermis and dermis [common for diabetics; insulin]
  117. _____ causes NE and 5Ht transport systems to run backwards in the brain
    MDMA; Ecstasy
  118. The study of how drugs are absorbed
  119. This drug is making a comeback in the Harrisburg area
  120. Administration of a substance into one of the cerebral ventricles.
  121. Drug ___________ is likely a cause of withdrawl
  122. A teaspoon of ____ toxin, an ACh antagonist, is said to have the power to kill everyone in the world
    Botulinum Toxin
  123. inhibitory of motor neurons, found throughout the CNS, and thought to be in as many as 1/3 of the brain's synapses.
  124. heroin, morphine, and opium are known as _________ and function like endogeonous opiods
  125. The readiness of molecules to interact with cellular molecules.
  126. Prozac, zoloft, and Paxil are all examples of a drug known as a(n)
  127. The neurotransmitter that excites the heart, muscles, urogenital tract and intestines.
  128. if something blocks ACh receptors, it is therefore known as an ......
  129. This blocks reuptake, and is sometimes used as a topical anesthetic.
  130. _______ is a Neurotransmitter heavily involved in the VTA-NA reward pathway
  131. A shortage of __________ is associated with alzheimer's disease
  132. drugs that increase the availability of seratonin 5Ht in the brain ____________ depressive systems
  133. to affect the body, a drug has to reach its ...
    Site of Action
  134. nil per os...
  135. Responsible for runners high and orgasms
  136. __________ is a GABA agonist and is likely the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepine in the USA
  137. it is important to remember that drugs are effective at ....
    Low Doses
  138. Administration of drug beneath the tounge
    Sublingual administration
  139. Serotonin neurons are concentrated along the midline in the ____________ nuclei of the brain **NOT covered on test #1
    Raphe **
  140. injection of a substance directly into a vein
    IV intravenous
  141. _______ is a dopamine agonist used to treat ADHD
  142. Damage to the ________ lobes make it difficult for people to create mental images of a math problem
    Parietal lobe
  143. because THC facilitates the effects of enodcannaboids, THC is considered an ...
  144. The most commonly used drug in the world is a ____________ antagonist. **might NOT be on test 1? I do not believe this was covered
  145. A series of interconnected structures that serve as the brain's emotional system
    Limbic System
  146. Our closest genetic cousin
  147. A fight or flight structure, it helps process fear
  148. controls vegetative processes
    Hind Brain
  149. weighs about 3 pounds in an adult human
    the brain
  150. The folded part of our brain, it controls integration, language, and reasoning
  151. Oral administration
    PO, per os
  152. administration of a drug into the rectum
    intrarectal administration
  153. this administration is the shortest route and has rapid effects.
    Inhalation - smoking, whip-its
  154. B12 absorbtion issues, suffocation, brain damage, and numbness are all side effects of....
    Whip-its Nitros oxide
  155. whip-its are associated with what gas
    nitros oxide
  156. administration to the skin
    Topical - steroid cream, niccotine, Birth control
  157. Intracerebral administration
    Straight to the brain
  158. intracerebralventricular
    into the ventricles
  159. Two factors that determine the rate of drug metabolism
    • Lipid solubility
    • Depot Binding
  160. The degree to which molecules can desolve in fat. The more soluble, the faster the metabolism
    Lipid solubility
  161. When drugs disperse, they bind with tissues of the body and proteins of the blood. This means that metabolism is slowed down
    Depot Binding
  162. The liver and kidneys assist enzymes in doing what to drugs?
    breaking them down, removal
  163. Lithium is used to treat what disorder?
    Bipolar disorder
  164. drugs have 3 different things:
    • Site of action
    • affinity
    • tolerance
  165. affinity is
    the readiness of molecules to interact with cellular molecules
  166. this is secreted by efferent neurons and control muscle movements. Also is Excitatory
    ACh, acetylcholines
  167. THC is thought to treat what ACh disease?
  168. This is used in poison darts to lock up muscle movement and inhibit ACh
  169. The perfect drug
  170. Black widow bites produce a surge in this, producing spasms
    ACh acetylcholine
  171. Proper term for the botox toxin
  172. used to dialate pupils
    Deadly nightshade
  173. ACh
  174. DA
  175. NE
  176. 5-Ht
  177. responsible for reward, reinforcemnt, and learing (VTA).
    Ventra Tegmental Area VTA
  178. Dopamine is excitatory, inhibitory, or both?
    Both excitatory and inhibitory
  179. This drug blocks DA reuptake, increasing the availabilty of dopamine in the synapses
  180. Norepinephrine is excitatory, inhibitory, or both?
    Excitatory ONLY
  181. This neurotransmitter affects arousal, wakefulness, appetite, and sex
    NE norepinephrine
  182. LSD affects seratonin 5-Ht levels in an agonist or antagonist way?
  183. affects mood, appetite, pain, arousal, stress, temperature regulation
    Seratonin 5-Ht
  184. Ecstacy is the street name for
  185. River toads affect
    Seratonin 5-Ht
  186. Psilocybin is also known as
    magic mushrooms
  187. These two neurons are used in information transmitting
    Glutamate and GABA
  188. PCP is an antagonist or agonist?
  189. GABA is ________;
    while Glutamate is __________
    • Inhibitory;
    • excitatory
  190. Valium is a tranquilizer; it enhances the inhibitory effects of _____
  191. This drug is used to treat moderate to severe panic / anxiety / depression. it is a benzodiazepine