ch 3 crj the search for causes.txt

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ch 3 crj the search for causes.txt
2011-09-08 15:43:00
crj search causes

ch 3 crj the search for causes.txt
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  1. deviance
    a violation of social norms defining appropriate or proper behavior under a particular set of circumstances. Devicance often includes criminal acts.
  2. theory
    a set of interrelated propostions that attempt to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events. A theory is strengthened by its logical consistency and is "tested" by how well it describes and predicts reality
  3. hypothesis
    An explanation that accounts for a set of facts and that can be tested by further investigation. also, something that is taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation
  4. research
    the use of standardized, systematic procedures in the search for knowledge
  5. interdisciplnary theory
    an approach that integrates a variety of theoretical viewpoints in an attempt to explain something, such as crime and violence
  6. Classical School
    An 18th century approach to crime causation nd criminal responsibility that grew out of the enlightenment and that emphasized the role of free will and reasonable punishments. classical thinkers believed that punishment, if it is to be an effective deterrent, has outweigh the potential pleasure derived from criminal behavior
  7. neoclassical criminology
    a contemporary version of classical criminology that emphasizes deterrence and retribution and that holds that human beings are essentially free to make choices in favor of crime and deviance or conformity to the law
  8. rational choice theory
    a perspective on crime causation that holds that criminality is the result of conscious choice. Rational choice theory predicts that individuals will choose to commit crime when the benefits of doing so outweigh the costs of disobeying the law
  9. routine choice theory
    a neoclassical perspective that lifestyles contribute significantly to both the amount and the type of crime found in any society
  10. Biological School
    a perspective on criminological thought that holds that criminal behavior has a physiological basis
  11. phrenology
    The study of the shape of the head to determine anatomical correlates of human behavior
  12. Atavism
    a condition characterized by the existence of features thought to be common in earlier stages of human evolution
  13. Positivist School
    an approach to CRJ theory that stresses the application of scientific techniques to the study of crime and criminals
  14. Somatotyping
    The classification of human beings into types according to body build and other physical characteristics
  15. supermale
    a human male diplaying the XYY chromosome structure
  16. Psychological school
    a perspective on criminological thought that views offensive and deviant behavior as the product of dysfuncitonal personality. Psychological thinkers identify the conscious, and especially the subconscious, contents of the human psyche as major determinants of behavior
  17. behavioral Conditioning
    a psychological principle that holds that the frequency of any behavior can be increased of decreased through reward, punishment, and association with other stimuli
  18. Psychoanalysis
    A theory of human behavior, based on the writing of Sigmund Freud, that sees personality as a complex composite of interacting mental entities
  19. Psychopathology
    the study of pathological mental conditions - that is, mental illness
  20. Psychopath
    A person with a personality disorder, especially one manifested in aggresively antisocial behavior, which is often said to be result of a poorly developed superego
  21. psychosis
    a form of mental illness in which sufferers are said to be out of touch with reality
  22. schizophrenic
    a mentally ill individual who suffers from disjointed thinking and possibly delusions and hallucinations
  23. psychological profiling
    the attempt to categorize, understand, and predict the behavior of certain types of offenders based on behaviorial clues they provide
  24. dangerousness
    the likelihood that a given individual will later harm society or others. Dangerousness is often measured in terms of recidivism, or the likelihood that an individual will commit another crime within five years following arrest or release from confinement
  25. Chicago School
    A sociological approach that emphasizes demographics and geographics and that sees the social disorganization that characterizes delinquency areas as a mojor cause of criminality and victimization
  26. Social disorganization
    A condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven development of culture, maladaptiveness, disharmony, conflict, and lack of consensus
  27. anomie
    a socially persuasive condition of normlessness. Also, a disjuction between approved goals and means
  28. reaction formation
    The process whereby a person openly rejects that which he or she wants or aspires to but cannot obtain or achieve
  29. subculture of violence
    a culture setting in which violence is a traditional and often accepted mathod of dispute resolution
  30. defensible space theory
    the belief that an area's physical features may be modified and structured so as to reduce crime rates in that area and to lower the fear victimization that residents experience
  31. broken windows thesis
    a perspective on crime causation that holds that the physical deterioration of an area leads to higher crime rates and an increased concern for personal safety among residents
  32. social process theory
    a perspective on criminological thought that highlights the process of interaction between individuals and society. most social process theories highlight the role of social learning
  33. Social learning theory
    A psychological perspective that says that people leanr how to behave by modeling themselves after others whom they have the opportunity to observe
  34. containment
    The aspects of the social bond and of the personality that act to prevent individuals from commiting crimes and engaging in deviance
  35. labeling theory
    a social process perspective that sees continued crime as a consequence of the limited opportunities for acceptable behavior that folow from negative resonses of society to those defined as offenders
  36. moral enterprise
    The process undertaken by an advocacy group to have its values legitimated and embodied in law
  37. social development theory
    an integrated view of human development that points to the process of interaction among and between individuals and society sa the root cause of criminal behavior
  38. lifr course perspective
    am approach to explainging crime and diviance that investigates developments and turning points in the course of a person's life
  39. conflict perspective
    A theoretical approach that holds that crime is the natural consequence of economic and other social inequities. Conflict theorists highlight the stresses that arise among and within social groups as they compete with one another for resources and for survival.
  40. Radical Criminology
    A conflict perspective that sees crime as engendered by the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and othe resources , which adherents believe is especially characteristics of capitalist societies
  41. Peacemaking criminology
    A perspective that holds that crime-Control agencies and the citizens they serve should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering and thus reduce crime
  42. femist criminology
    a developing intelluctual approach that emphasizes gender issues in criminology
  43. constitutive criminology
    The study of the process by which human beings create an ideaology of crime that sustains the notion of crime as a concrete reality
  44. postmodern criminology
    a branch of criminology that developed after WW2 and that builds on the tenents of post-modern social thought
  45. deconstuctionist theory
    One of the emerging approches that challengs existing criminological perspectives to debunk them and that works toward replacing them with concepts more applicable to the post moodern era