Nursing GI drugs

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Author:
thegloper
ID:
100578
Filename:
Nursing GI drugs
Updated:
2011-09-08 17:52:46
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Nurse GI Drug
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Description:
Nursing GI drug categories and drug names
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  1. Histamine H2 Recptor Antagonist (H2RA)
    • ranitidine (Zantac, Zantac EFFERdose)
    • cimetidine (Tagamet)
    • famotidine (Pepcid, Pepcid AC, Pepcid RPD)
    • nizatidine (Axid, Axid AR, Axid Pulvules)

    MOA: Reduces the amount of gastric acid produced
  2. Proton Pump Inhibitors
    • omeprazole (Prilosec, Prilosec OTC, Zegerid)*
    • esomeprazole (Nexium, Nexium IV)lansoprazole (Prevacid)
    • rabeprazole (Aciflex)pantoprazole (Protonix, Protonix IV)

    MOA: Blocks enzyme needed for acid formation
  3. Mucosal Protectants
    sucralfate (Carafate)

    • MOA: Local protectant action: adheres to surface and promotes healing, prevents injury for up to 6 hr
  4. Prostaglandins
    misoprostol (Cytotec)

    MOA: inhibit gastric acid secretion, & promotes mucous production, and increases blood flow via vasodilation

    NOTE: prevention of NSAID-induced ulcers
  5. Antacids
    • calcium carbonate
    • magnesium hydroxide
    • aluminum hydroxide

    MOA: neutralize gastric acid
  6. Bulk-Forming Laxatives
    • psycillium (Metamucil, Konsyl, Fiberall)
    • polycarbophil (Fibercon)

    MOA: absorb water into fecal contents & expand increasing bulk of stool
  7. Surfactant laxatives (stool softeners)
    • docusate sodium (Colace)
    • docusate calcium (Surfak)

    MOA: Soften or lubricate hard feces

    NOTE: Prevents constipation, does not treat it once it is present
  8. Stimulant Laxatives
    • senna (Senokot)
    • bisacodyl (Ducolax)

    • MOA: Increases GI motility
    • senna (Senokot)*
    • bisacodyl (Ducolax)
  9. Osmotic/Saline Laxatives
    • polyethylene glycol-electrolyte (Golytely, Half-Lytely)
    • magnesium hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia, MOM)
    • magnesium citrate (Citrate of Magnesia)
    • sodium phosphate (Phospho-soda Fleet)
    • lactulose (Cephulac)
    • polyethylene glycol (MiraLax)

    Note: Quick complete bowel emptying
  10. Lubricant Laxatives
    Mineral oil

    MOA: softens and lubricates stool

    Glycerin suppositories

    MOA: promote peristalsis through local irritation (30 minutes)
  11. Gastric stimulant
    Alvimopan (Entereg)

    Indications - Speed time to upper/lower GI recovery following partial large/small bowel resection with primary anastamosis
  12. treatment for constipation caused by opioid
    methylnaltrexone (Relistor)

    MOA: Blocks constipating effects of opioids on the GI tract without loss of analgesia.
  13. Serotonin Receptor Antagonists
    • ondansetron (Zofran)
    • granisetron (Granisol, Kytril, Sancuso)
    • dolasetron (Anzemet)
    • palonosetron (Aloxi)

    Type: Antiemetic
  14. Substance P/neurokinin antagonist
    Aprepitant/fosaprepitant (Emend)

    Type: Antiemetic
  15. Phenothiazines
    • prochlorperazine (Compazine)
    • metoclopramide (Reglan)
    • promethazine (Phenergan)
    • droperidol (Inapsine)

    Type Antiemetic
  16. Cannabinoids
    dronabinol (Marinol)

    Type: Antiemetic
  17. Motion Sickness
    • scopolamine (Transderm Scop)
    • dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)
    • meclizine (Antivert)

    MOA: Suppress nerve stimulation in CNS
  18. Emetics
    Ipecac syrup
  19. Antidiarrheals - Local acting
    • bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol)
    • stoolkaolin (Kaopectolin)
    • attapulgite (Rheaban)
    • activated charcoal (antidote)
  20. Antidiarrheals - Systemic
    • codeinediphenoxylate/atropine (Lomotil)
    • loperamide (Imodium)
    • paregoric (tincture of opium)
    • difenoxin/atropine (Motofen)
  21. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) drugs
    alostetron (Lotronex) - Only approved for women with severe diarrhea-inducing IBS (dangers, read)

    tegaserod (Zelnorm) – Discontinued, Now available with restricted use for women younger than 55 with IBS with diarrhea
  22. Ulcerative Colitis drugs
    • sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)
    • mesalamine (Rowasa)
    • olsalazine (Dipentum)
  23. Appetite suppressant drug
    sibutramine (Meridia)
  24. fat blocking drug
    orlistat (Xenical, Alli)

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