Sociology Exam 1
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What is sociology?
science guided by the basic understanding that "the social matters: our lives are affected not only by our individual characteristics but by our place in the social world
What is sociological imagination?
ability to look beyond the individual as the cause for success and failure and see how one’s society influences the outcome
Who is C. Wright Mills?
people must understand how outside forces contribute to their situation
What is micro perspective?
- our own biography
- small scale perspective
- looking at only one individual
What is macro perspective?
large scale perspective
Who is Emile Durkheim?
- proposed that two forces determine whether a person will take his or her own life
- solidarity and social control
What is solidarity?
the level of connectedness and integration a person feels to others in the environment
What is social control?
the social mechanisms that regulate a person’s actions
What are the types of suicide?
egoistic, altruistic, fatalistic, anomic
What is egoistic suicide?
suicides that result from a lack of solidarity
What is altruistic suicide?
suicides that occur when the level of solidarity is exceptionally high
What is fatalistic suicide?
suicides that result from a lack of social control
What is anomic suicide?
suicides that occur as a result of social unrest
What social factors influence personal choices?
- time of the year
What are the three major paradigms?
functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism
What is a paradigm?
theoretical framework through which scientists study the world
What is functionalism?
theoretical paradigm that defines society as a system of interrelated parts
What is conflict theory?
- views society and an unequal system that brings conflict and change
- views society in a struggle for scarce resources
What is symbolic interactionism?
focuses on how people interact with others in their everyday lives
Who is Auguste Comte?
- coined term sociology
- social laws, social statics, and social dynamics
What are social laws?
statements of fact that are unchanging under given conditions and can be used as ground rules for any kind of society
What are social statics?
existing structural elements of society and social dynamics
What are social dynamics?
the change in the structural elements of society
Who is Herbert Spencer?
used social darwinism
What is social darwinism?
notion that suggests strong societies survive and weak ones become extinct
Who is Emile Durkheim?
- used analytical approach to studying society
- suggested solidarity was a vital component of society
- mechanical solidarity & organic solidarity
What is mechanical solidarity?
the state of community bonding in traditional societies in which people share beliefs and values and perform common activities
What is organic solidarity?
when people live in a society with a large division of labor
Who is Albion Small?
created 1st department of sociology in 1892 at University of Chicago
Who is Talcott Parsons?
influenced and expanded the functionalist paradigm
Who is Talcott Parsons?
- creating grand theories that attempted to explain most aspects of human experience and how social systems interconnect
- If one part broke down it had repercussions for the entire system.
- Parsons analyzed the inertia of the social system.
Who is Robert Merton?
- create a middle range theory that could bridge the gap between grand theories and the study of individual parts of society
- functions, manifest functions, and latent functions
What are some criticisms of functionalism?
- doesn't consider wealth and power on society formation
- accused of supporting status quo
Who is Karl Marx?
analyzed the effects of capitalism – an economic system in which private individuals own businesses and control the economy
What is bourgeoisie?
members of the capitalist class
What is proletariat?
members of the poor working class
What is false consciousness?
a person’s lack of understanding of his or her position in society
What is class consciousness?
an understanding of one’s position in the class system was needed
Who is Harriet Martineau?
- inequalities of the sexes
- impact of slavery
- position of women in society
Who is WEB DuBois?
initiated study of race in America
Who is Jane Adams?
initiate the settlement house movement in Chicago
- 1.Workers would live in the slums to better understand the problems there
- 2.Every person has dignity and worth regardless of race/ethnicity, gender or social class
- 3.Dedication, education, and service can overcome ignorance, disease and other problems often associated with poverty
Who is John Bellamy Foster?
negative effects of capitalism
What are some critics of conflict theory?
- too radical
- centers on idea that powerful people oppress weak
- ignores that competition can make individuals work harder
- many in US are satisfied with the capitalist system
Who is George Herbert Mead?
- founded symbolic interactionism
- root of society is the symbols that teach us to understand the world
- building blocks of society start with our minds, the place we interpret symbols
- symbols are the keys to society
What is self?
a person’s identity and what makes the person different from others develops.
Who is Herbert Blumer?
- 1.Human beings behave toward things on the basis of the meanings they ascribe to those things
- 2.The meaning of such things is derived from, or arises out of, the social interaction that one has with others and society
- 3.These meanings are handled in and modified through an interpretive process used by the person in dealing with the things he or she encounters
What is contagion?
rapid, irrational mode in which people do not think rationally or clearly
Who is Erving Goffman?
- developed theory called dramaturgy
- we are constantly trying to manage the impressions that others have of us
What is dramaturgy?
theory of interaction in which all life is like acting
What is impression management?
is the action we use to control what others think of us
The scientific procedures that sociologists use to conduct research and develop knowledge about a particular topic.
the ability to conduct research without allowing personal biases or prejudices to influence you.
variables that are deliberately manipulated in an experiment
the response to the manipulated variable
variables that are kept constant to accurately test the impact of an independent variable
a relationship in which one condition leads to a certain consequence
the relationship between cause and effect
an indication that one factor might be the cause for another factor
two variables that move in parallel direction
occur when variables move in opposite directions
occurs when two variables appear to be related but actually have a different cause
- investigation conducted by social scientists
- series of six steps
decide on a topic
- first stage of the research model involves determining what you want to study
- select topics on the basis of importance, personal interest or the availability of research
- study of relevant academic articles and information
- let you know what other researchers have previously discovered on the topic
a suggestion about how variables relate
comprehensive and systematic explanation of events that lead to testable predictions
abstract ideas that are important to measure
turning abstract ideas into something measurable
the process used to find information
- investigation of the opinions or experience of a group of people by asking them questions
- include questionnaires and interview
- usually targeted at particular populations
7 steps of conducting a survey
1.Clarify your purpose
- 2.Define your population
- 3.Choose a sample
- 4.Prepare questions
- 5.Decide how to collect data
- 6.Collect data
- 7.Record, analyze and interpret data
extreme unwillingness to use resources
a subset of the population
the extent that what is learned from a sample can be applied to the population from which the sample is taken
a group of subjects arbitrarily chosen from a defined population
sample of convenience
non-random sample available to the researcher
the likelihood that a non-representative sample may lead to inaccurate results
- used to test ideas
- researchers try to control variables in order to test causes and effects
- some may test peoples’ interactions
occurs when people behave differently because they know they are part of an experiment
research conducted in a natural setting
a type of field research where the researchers pose as a person who is normally in the environment
investigations of one person or event in detail
a research method that aims to understand the social perspective and cultural values of a particular group by participation with or getting to know their activities in detail
data that others have already collected and published
secondary data analysis
is the process of using and analyzing data that others have collected
the numbers in the middle of an array of numbers
the midpoint in a distribution of numbers
the most commong value in a distribution of numbers
steps in reading tables
- 1.Carefully read the title of the table
- 2.Notice the structure of the table
- 3.Observe the important subheading of the table
- 4.Read any text and notes provided below the table
share and publish results
- allows others to read and use your findings in their own research
- expands the base of knowledge
- American Sociological Association style
a system of values or principles that guide one’s behavior
5 general principles make up ethical practice in sociology
- 1.Professional competence
- 3.Professional and scientific responsibility
- 4.Respect for people’s rights, dignity, and diversitySocial responsibility
data based on numbers
words, pictures, photos, or any other type of information that come to the researcher in a non-numeric form
type of research in which the sociologist looks for common words or themes in newspapers, books, or structured interviews
process of using multiple approaches to study a phenomenon
how theoretical paradigm affects functionalists' interpretation of data
would examine how an issue functions or has consequences in the society
how theoretical paradigm affects social conflict theorist's interpretation of data
would study how the same phenomenon affect the unequal distribution of goods or rewards in society
how theoretical paradigm affects social symbolic interactionist's interpretation of data
might focus more on how the issue affected people on the individual level
- Material objects - that are passed on from generation to generation.
items that you can taste, touch or feel
nonphysical products of society
- system of speech and/or written symbols used to convey meaning and communication
- both oral, written, or oral and written
- over 6,000
factors that determine size of language group
- population size
- colonial history
the structure of a language determines a native speaker’s perception and categorization of experience
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis proposal points
- 1.The differences in the structure of language parallel differences in the thinking of the people who speak the language.
- 2. The structure of a language strongly influences the speaker’s worldview.
- 1. Achievement and Success
- 2. Activity and Work
- 3. Moral Orientation
- 4. Humanitarianism
- 5. Efficiency and Practicality
- 6. Progress
- 7. Material Comfort
- 8. Equality
- 9. Freedom
- 10. External Conformity
- 11. Science and Secular Rationality
- 12. Nationalism and Patriotism
- 13. Democracy
- 14. Individual Personality
- 15. Racism and Related Group Superiority
additional US values
- 1. Physical Fitness and Youthfulness
- 2. Sexuality and Romance
- rules developed for appropriate behavior based on specific values that are conditional, they can vary from place to place
- provides justification for sanctions
- norms that represent a community’s most important values
- In literate societies mores are often in the code of law
- informal norms
- based on social expectations
- involve etiquette and manners
- sanctions applied are less severe then for other types of norms
represent, suggest or stand for something else.
- refers to the fact that culture passes from one generation to another through language
- able to use information others have learned
- helps spread technology
- symbols we make using our bodies
- differ according to different cultures
- a prize or punishment you receive when you either abide by a norm or violate it
- can be informal or formal
- an act that is socially unacceptable
- strongest form of norms, these are prohibitions viewed as essential to the well being of the community
- occurs when a person uses his or her own culture to judge another culture
- potentially dangerous when it leads to forcing one’s way of life on other cultures
refers to fear and hostility toward people who are from other countries or cultures
consists of a deliberate effort to appreciate a group’s ways of life in its own context without prejudice
- occurs when social and cultural changes occur at a slower pace than technological changes
- occurs when new technology enters and changes the society
occurs when a person encounters a culture foreign to his or her own and has an emotional response to the differences between the cultures
represents the values to which a culture aspires
the culture as it really is
consist of groups with a common interest that has distinct values, beliefs and norms
subcultures that express values or beliefs in direct opposition to the dominant group’s values.
- a concept that supports the inherent value of different cultures within society
- believe immigrants and ethnic groups should be able to maintain aspects of their original culture such as religion, language, cultural beliefs and traditions
- process by which minority groups adopt the patterns of the dominant culture
- can be forced or voluntary
symbolic interactionists view on culture
explore how language, gestures, or values affect a culture
conflict theorists on culture
- suggest that society is united in a struggle for scare resources
- there are winners and losers in society
functionalist view on culture
ask how culture works to hold society together
the study of large-scale society, focusing on the social structures that exist within a society that endure from one generation to the next
deals primarily with the small interactions of daily life
patterns of relationships that endure from one generation to the next
any number of people with similar norms, values, and behaviors who frequently interact with one another
small, intimate, enduring groups such as the family and close friends
formal, superficial, temporary groups such as relationships with most class mates
- a group with similar access to power, wealth, and prestige
- importance varies within different societies
the position that you occupy within the social structure which is closely linked to social class
a position that you earn or do something to attain
a position in society that is assigned
- a status toward which we gravitate
- may be what is most important to us, such as our status as a parent, or what is most important to others such as one’s race or economic standing
the behavior of a specific status
anticipated behaviors for a particular role
the degree to which a person plays the role in a manner we expect
a phenomenon occurring when one is forced to choose between the competing demands of multiple roles
when the demands and expectations of one role are impossible for us to satisfy
a mark of disgrace associated with a particular status, quality, or person
a stigma that cannot be hidden from others or is no longer hidden from others
a stigma that can be concealed from others
stages of societal change
- hunting and gathering societies
- agricultural societies
- industrial societies
- postindustrial societies
–Pastoral and horticultural societies emerged when humans learned to domesticate plants and animals.
–Humans learned to use simple hand tools to till the soil and plant seeds and to raise animals.
–Around 5,000 years ago with the invention of the plow, agricultural societies arose.
–During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Western world experienced an industrial revolution.
–Complex machines such as the steam engine replaced human labor.
–Technology was used to make goods.
–A surplus developed and improved the standard of living.
–There was less inequality than in agricultural societies.
–Refers to the societal change when people move from an economy based on manufacturing to one based on services and technology.
- –These societies tend to seek manufacturing goods and food from other societies.
- There are large surpluses of wealth
qualities of postindustrial society
- 1.A shift from manufacturing to services
- 2.The centrality of the new science based industries
- 3.The rise of new technical elites
structures that provide for patterned relationships
- cultural universal
- exist in various forms in all societies
- teach the value of sharing and mutual support
- provide safety and security needs for their members
- pass on important values and provide for children and the elderly
transfer knowledge and information of the society to new members – they can be formal or informal
- vary a great deal, but most religions unify people through an organized system of beliefs
- stabilizaes society and provides framwork for people to live their lives
- help people get what they need
- allow for the consumption, production and transition of goods in an orderly fashion
- involved bartering, more advanced societies use money as a system of exchange
- distribute power in society
- used to create law
- legal system enforces the laws to maintain social order and promote unity
refers to simple societies where all the individuals are interconnected by a simple division of labor
refers to more complex societies where there are many forms of work and the division of labor is much more complex.
four zones of personal space
- intimate distance
- personal distance
- social distance
- public distance
distance reserved for those with whom we are very close
distance that ranges from 18 inches to 4 feet, distance for normal conversation
distance that ranges from 4 feet to 12 feet and is usually for formal settings
- to zone of interaction that is used in highly formal settings
- distance greater than 12 feet
a theory of interaction in which all life is like acting
management of the impression that the performer makes on others
- what the audience sees
- the part of ourselves that we present to others
the demeanor that incorporates our true feelings and beliefs
state that occurs when we realize our act has failed
reaction to embarrassment, either humor, anger or retreat
shared characteristics such as race, gender or age
techniques that involve flattering your boss and agreeing with his or her opinion or avoiding disagreement.
techniques that include acting modest about your accomplishments, boasting occasionally about your successes
five primary tasks of society to create social structures (functionalism)
- 1.adaption and replacement
- 2.orientation and socialization
- 3.production and economy
- 4.social order
- 5. unity and purpose
groups that consist of two or more people who interact with one another and share a common identity
- small, intimate and long lasting
- ex. family, close friends
- formal, superficial, and last for a short or fixed time
- ex. civic groups
- relationships that exist only under specific conditions
- exists in secondary groups often that are of relatively short duration
a group to which we feel an affinity or closeness
the feeling that a person’s in-group is superior to others’
- a group from which we are disconnected
- often hold negative biases towards these groups
- the group that you use to evaluate yourself
- used to compare ourselves to another person or group
- a group consisting of only two persons
- usually a very close relationship
- a group consisting of three persons
- George Simmel:the weakest group size
a behavior mode that leaders use to influence group members
the three leadership styles
- autocratic leader
- democratic leader
- laissez-faire leader
a leader who determines the group policies and assigns roles
a leader who strives to set group policy by discussion and agreement
a leader who leads by absence and may in fact not want to be a leader at all
points about leadership style
- 1.There's no “right” type of style
- 2.Successful leaders adapt the style to the situation
- 3.The process of leadership impacts both the group members and the leader.
- 4.Leadership styles are learnable.
- 5.Different styles can be effective in certain situation and/or with certain groups of people.
the degree to which we will alter our behavior, attitudes, and points of view to fit into our perceived expectation of what is appropriate
- group decisions that are made without objective thought
- People conform to what they believe is the consensus of the rest of the group
conditions of groupthink
- Group cohesiveness
- External threat
- Strong leadership
shortcomings of groupthink
- 1.Illusion of invulnerability
- 2.Belief in inherent morality
- 3.Stereotyped views of out-groups
- 4.Collective rationalization
- 5.Direct pressure on dissenters
- 7.Illusion of unanimity
- 8.Self-appointed mind guards
a sociological concept that refers to the individual and collective resources available to a person
the web of ties you have with others
forms of social networking
- 1.Traditional networks (family and close friends)
- 2.Church networks (church family)
- 3.Contract networks (economic networks)
groups created for a certain purpose and built for maximum efficiency
the act of joining an organization that offers no pay and that expands social networks through interaction
formal groups that exist to achieve a desired goal
types of organization
- utilitarian organizations
- normative organizations
- coercive organizations
an organization in which people receive wages in exchange for work
organizations that exist to achieve a worthwhile goal
organizations that people are forced to join
qualities that keep formal organizations running smoothly
- division of labor
- concentration of power
- methods of succession
division of labor
tasks are clearly defined
concentration of power
power is in the hand of a few
methods of succession
replacement of members
the explicit rules, goals, and guidelines of an organization
friendships, allegiances, and loyalties among members of an organization
- formal organizations that are organized into a hierarchy of smaller departments
- Max Weber was one of the firsts to discuss it
- logical extension of formal rational thought
the reasonable actions organizations and bureaucracies take to achieve goals
goal of large organization
strive toward formal rationality and bureaucracy
- concept by Max Weber
- refers to the way in which bureaucracies make workers feel trapped and turn them into little more than robots accomplishing tasks
levels of model of leadership
- positional leaders
- permission leaders
- production leaders
- people development
other people give positional leaders the reins of leadership
people follow because they want to
people follow because of what you have done
people follow because they are empowered
people follow because of who you are
conflict theorists view of bureaucracy
- Karl Marx
- believed that ‘bureaucracy was a circle from which one could not escape’
- bureaucracy was the way the bourgeoisie exploited workers and more efficiently gained more wealth and control for themselves
sybolic interactionists view of democratic workplace
- traditional bureaucracies create ineffective work environments because workers are disconnected
- team approaches in management encourage democracy in the workplace.
adult civic engagement & childhood activities
- McFarland and Thomas
- suggest that your involvement as a child impacts your willingness to engage in political action in the future
- the process that teaches the:
- and other aspects of the culture to new group members
Socialization that occurs during childhood
Socialization that continues throughout life
the belief that genetic and biological heredity are the primary causes of human behaviors
the belief that the way in which we think, feel and behave are the results of our environment
agents of socialization
- the people and groups that shape our self-concept, beliefs and behavior
- ex.family,social class,neighborhood,religion,education,media
authoritative parenting style
a parenting style in which parents listen to their children’s input while consistently enforcing the parent’s rules
permissive parenting style
parents provide high levels of support but an inconsistent enforcement of rules
authoritarian parenting style
children experience high levels of social control but low levels of emotional support
- process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors and abandoning old ones
- used in total institutions
Cooley's theory on socialization
- the self developed in 3 main stages (looking-glass self):
- 1.we imagine how we appear to others
- 2.we draw general conclusion based on the reaction of others
- 3.we develop our sense of personal identity based on evaluation of other's reactions
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