Sociology Exam 1

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  1. What is sociology?
    science guided by the basic understanding that "the social matters: our lives are affected not only by our individual characteristics but by our place in the social world
  2. What is sociological imagination?
    ability to look beyond the individual as the cause for success and failure and see how one’s society influences the outcome
  3. Who is C. Wright Mills?
    people must understand how outside forces contribute to their situation
  4. What is micro perspective?
    • our own biography
    • small scale perspective
    • looking at only one individual
  5. What is macro perspective?
    large scale perspective
  6. Who is Emile Durkheim?
    • proposed that two forces determine whether a person will take his or her own life
    • solidarity and social control
  7. What is solidarity?
    the level of connectedness and integration a person feels to others in the environment
  8. What is social control?
    the social mechanisms that regulate a person’s actions
  9. What are the types of suicide?
    egoistic, altruistic, fatalistic, anomic
  10. What is egoistic suicide?
    suicides that result from a lack of solidarity
  11. What is altruistic suicide?
    suicides that occur when the level of solidarity is exceptionally high
  12. What is fatalistic suicide?
    suicides that result from a lack of social control
  13. What is anomic suicide?
    suicides that occur as a result of social unrest
  14. What social factors influence personal choices?
    • time of the year
    • season
    • job
    • age
  15. What are the three major paradigms?
    functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism
  16. What is a paradigm?
    theoretical framework through which scientists study the world
  17. What is functionalism?
    theoretical paradigm that defines society as a system of interrelated parts
  18. What is conflict theory?
    • views society and an unequal system that brings conflict and change
    • views society in a struggle for scarce resources
  19. What is symbolic interactionism?
    focuses on how people interact with others in their everyday lives
  20. Who is Auguste Comte?
    • coined term sociology
    • social laws, social statics, and social dynamics
  21. What are social laws?
    statements of fact that are unchanging under given conditions and can be used as ground rules for any kind of society
  22. What are social statics?
    existing structural elements of society and social dynamics
  23. What are social dynamics?
    the change in the structural elements of society
  24. Who is Herbert Spencer?
    used social darwinism
  25. What is social darwinism?
    notion that suggests strong societies survive and weak ones become extinct
  26. Who is Emile Durkheim?
    • used analytical approach to studying society
    • suggested solidarity was a vital component of society
    • mechanical solidarity & organic solidarity
  27. What is mechanical solidarity?
    the state of community bonding in traditional societies in which people share beliefs and values and perform common activities
  28. What is organic solidarity?
    when people live in a society with a large division of labor
  29. Who is Albion Small?
    created 1st department of sociology in 1892 at University of Chicago
  30. Who is Talcott Parsons?
    influenced and expanded the functionalist paradigm
  31. Who is Talcott Parsons?
    • creating grand theories that attempted to explain most aspects of human experience and how social systems interconnect
    • If one part broke down it had repercussions for the entire system.
    • Parsons analyzed the inertia of the social system.
  32. Who is Robert Merton?
    • create a middle range theory that could bridge the gap between grand theories and the study of individual parts of society
    • functions, manifest functions, and latent functions
  33. What are some criticisms of functionalism?
    • doesn't consider wealth and power on society formation
    • accused of supporting status quo
  34. Who is Karl Marx?
    analyzed the effects of capitalism – an economic system in which private individuals own businesses and control the economy
  35. What is bourgeoisie?
    members of the capitalist class
  36. What is proletariat?
    members of the poor working class
  37. What is false consciousness?
    a person’s lack of understanding of his or her position in society
  38. What is class consciousness?
    an understanding of one’s position in the class system was needed
  39. Who is Harriet Martineau?
    • inequalities of the sexes
    • impact of slavery
    • position of women in society
  40. Who is WEB DuBois?
    initiated study of race in America
  41. Who is Jane Adams?
    initiate the settlement house movement in Chicago

    • 1.Workers would live in the slums to better understand the problems there
    • 2.Every person has dignity and worth regardless of race/ethnicity, gender or social class
    • 3.Dedication, education, and service can overcome ignorance, disease and other problems often associated with poverty
  42. Who is John Bellamy Foster?
    negative effects of capitalism
  43. What are some critics of conflict theory?
    • too radical
    • centers on idea that powerful people oppress weak
    • ignores that competition can make individuals work harder
    • many in US are satisfied with the capitalist system
  44. Who is George Herbert Mead?
    • founded symbolic interactionism
    • root of society is the symbols that teach us to understand the world
    • building blocks of society start with our minds, the place we interpret symbols
    • symbols are the keys to society
  45. What is self?
    a person’s identity and what makes the person different from others develops.
  46. Who is Herbert Blumer?
    • 1.Human beings behave toward things on the basis of the meanings they ascribe to those things
    • 2.The meaning of such things is derived from, or arises out of, the social interaction that one has with others and society
    • 3.These meanings are handled in and modified through an interpretive process used by the person in dealing with the things he or she encounters
  47. What is contagion?
    rapid, irrational mode in which people do not think rationally or clearly
  48. Who is Erving Goffman?
    • developed theory called dramaturgy
    • we are constantly trying to manage the impressions that others have of us
  49. What is dramaturgy?
    theory of interaction in which all life is like acting
  50. What is impression management?
    is the action we use to control what others think of us
  51. research methods
    The scientific procedures that sociologists use to conduct research and develop knowledge about a particular topic.
  52. objectivity
    the ability to conduct research without allowing personal biases or prejudices to influence you.
  53. independent variables
    variables that are deliberately manipulated in an experiment
  54. dependent variables
    the response to the manipulated variable
  55. control variables
    variables that are kept constant to accurately test the impact of an independent variable
  56. casual relationship
    a relationship in which one condition leads to a certain consequence
  57. causation
    the relationship between cause and effect
  58. correlation
    an indication that one factor might be the cause for another factor
  59. positive correlation
    two variables that move in parallel direction
  60. negative correlation
    occur when variables move in opposite directions
  61. spurious correlation
    occurs when two variables appear to be related but actually have a different cause
  62. social research
    • investigation conducted by social scientists
    • series of six steps
  63. decide on a topic
    • first stage of the research model involves determining what you want to study
    • select topics on the basis of importance, personal interest or the availability of research
  64. literature review
    • study of relevant academic articles and information
    • let you know what other researchers have previously discovered on the topic
  65. hypothesis
    a suggestion about how variables relate
  66. theory
    comprehensive and systematic explanation of events that lead to testable predictions
  67. concepts
    abstract ideas that are important to measure
  68. operationalizing
    turning abstract ideas into something measurable
  69. research design
    the process used to find information
  70. survey
    • investigation of the opinions or experience of a group of people by asking them questions
    • include questionnaires and interview
    • usually targeted at particular populations
  71. 7 steps of conducting a survey
  72. 1.Clarify your purpose
    • 2.Define your population
    • 3.Choose a sample
    • 4.Prepare questions
    • 5.Decide how to collect data
    • 6.Collect data
    • 7.Record, analyze and interpret data
  73. parsimony
    extreme unwillingness to use resources
  74. sample
    a subset of the population
  75. generalization
    the extent that what is learned from a sample can be applied to the population from which the sample is taken
  76. random sample
    a group of subjects arbitrarily chosen from a defined population
  77. sample of convenience
    non-random sample available to the researcher
  78. selection effects
    the likelihood that a non-representative sample may lead to inaccurate results
  79. experiments
    • used to test ideas
    • researchers try to control variables in order to test causes and effects
    • some may test peoples’ interactions
  80. Hawthorne effect
    occurs when people behave differently because they know they are part of an experiment
  81. field research
    research conducted in a natural setting
  82. participant observation
    a type of field research where the researchers pose as a person who is normally in the environment
  83. case studies
    investigations of one person or event in detail
  84. ethnography
    a research method that aims to understand the social perspective and cultural values of a particular group by participation with or getting to know their activities in detail
  85. secondary data
    data that others have already collected and published
  86. secondary data analysis
    is the process of using and analyzing data that others have collected
  87. central tendency
    the numbers in the middle of an array of numbers
  88. mean
  89. median
    the midpoint in a distribution of numbers
  90. mode
    the most commong value in a distribution of numbers
  91. steps in reading tables
    • 1.Carefully read the title of the table
    • 2.Notice the structure of the table
    • 3.Observe the important subheading of the table
    • 4.Read any text and notes provided below the table
  92. share and publish results
    • allows others to read and use your findings in their own research
    • expands the base of knowledge
    • American Sociological Association style
  93. ethics
    a system of values or principles that guide one’s behavior
  94. 5 general principles make up ethical practice in sociology
    • 1.Professional competence
    • 2.Integrity
    • 3.Professional and scientific responsibility
    • 4.Respect for people’s rights, dignity, and diversitySocial responsibility
  95. quantitative data
    data based on numbers
  96. qualitative data
    words, pictures, photos, or any other type of information that come to the researcher in a non-numeric form
  97. content analysis
    type of research in which the sociologist looks for common words or themes in newspapers, books, or structured interviews
  98. triangulation
    process of using multiple approaches to study a phenomenon
  99. how theoretical paradigm affects functionalists' interpretation of data
    would examine how an issue functions or has consequences in the society
  100. how theoretical paradigm affects social conflict theorist's interpretation of data
    would study how the same phenomenon affect the unequal distribution of goods or rewards in society
  101. how theoretical paradigm affects social symbolic interactionist's interpretation of data
    might focus more on how the issue affected people on the individual level
  102. culture includes...
    • Language
    • Beliefs
    • Values
    • Norms
    • Behaviors
    • Material objects - that are passed on from generation to generation.
  103. material culture
    items that you can taste, touch or feel
  104. nonmaterial culture
    nonphysical products of society
  105. language
    • system of speech and/or written symbols used to convey meaning and communication
    • both oral, written, or oral and written
    • over 6,000
  106. factors that determine size of language group
    • population size
    • colonial history
  107. sapir-whorf hypothesis
    the structure of a language determines a native speaker’s perception and categorization of experience
  108. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis proposal points
    • 1.The differences in the structure of language parallel differences in the thinking of the people who speak the language.
    • 2. The structure of a language strongly influences the speaker’s worldview.
  109. US Values
    • 1. Achievement and Success
    • 2. Activity and Work
    • 3. Moral Orientation
    • 4. Humanitarianism
    • 5. Efficiency and Practicality
    • 6. Progress
    • 7. Material Comfort

    • 8. Equality
    • 9. Freedom
    • 10. External Conformity
    • 11. Science and Secular Rationality
    • 12. Nationalism and Patriotism
    • 13. Democracy
    • 14. Individual Personality
    • 15. Racism and Related Group Superiority
  110. additional US values
    • 1. Physical Fitness and Youthfulness
    • 2. Sexuality and Romance
  111. norms
    • rules developed for appropriate behavior based on specific values that are conditional, they can vary from place to place
    • provides justification for sanctions
  112. mores
    • norms that represent a community’s most important values
    • In literate societies mores are often in the code of law
  113. folkways
    • informal norms
    • based on social expectations
    • involve etiquette and manners
    • sanctions applied are less severe then for other types of norms
  114. symbols
    represent, suggest or stand for something else.
  115. cultural transmission
    • refers to the fact that culture passes from one generation to another through language
    • able to use information others have learned
    • helps spread technology
  116. gestures
    • symbols we make using our bodies
    • differ according to different cultures
  117. sanctions
    • a prize or punishment you receive when you either abide by a norm or violate it
    • can be informal or formal
  118. taboo
    • an act that is socially unacceptable
    • strongest form of norms, these are prohibitions viewed as essential to the well being of the community
  119. ethnocentrism
    • occurs when a person uses his or her own culture to judge another culture
    • potentially dangerous when it leads to forcing one’s way of life on other cultures
  120. xenophobia
    refers to fear and hostility toward people who are from other countries or cultures
  121. cultural relativism
    consists of a deliberate effort to appreciate a group’s ways of life in its own context without prejudice
  122. cultural lag
    • occurs when social and cultural changes occur at a slower pace than technological changes
    • occurs when new technology enters and changes the society
  123. culture shock
    occurs when a person encounters a culture foreign to his or her own and has an emotional response to the differences between the cultures
  124. ideal culture
    represents the values to which a culture aspires
  125. real culture
    the culture as it really is
  126. subcultures
    consist of groups with a common interest that has distinct values, beliefs and norms
  127. countercultures
    subcultures that express values or beliefs in direct opposition to the dominant group’s values.
  128. multiculturalism
    • a concept that supports the inherent value of different cultures within society
    • believe immigrants and ethnic groups should be able to maintain aspects of their original culture such as religion, language, cultural beliefs and traditions
  129. assimilation
    • process by which minority groups adopt the patterns of the dominant culture
    • can be forced or voluntary
  130. symbolic interactionists view on culture
    explore how language, gestures, or values affect a culture
  131. conflict theorists on culture
    • suggest that society is united in a struggle for scare resources
    • there are winners and losers in society
  132. functionalist view on culture
    ask how culture works to hold society together
  133. macrosociology
    the study of large-scale society, focusing on the social structures that exist within a society that endure from one generation to the next
  134. microsociology
    deals primarily with the small interactions of daily life
  135. social structures
    patterns of relationships that endure from one generation to the next
  136. group
    any number of people with similar norms, values, and behaviors who frequently interact with one another
  137. primary group
    small, intimate, enduring groups such as the family and close friends
  138. secondary group
    formal, superficial, temporary groups such as relationships with most class mates
  139. social class
    • a group with similar access to power, wealth, and prestige
    • importance varies within different societies
  140. status
    the position that you occupy within the social structure which is closely linked to social class
  141. achieved status
    a position that you earn or do something to attain
  142. ascribed status
    a position in society that is assigned
  143. master status
    • a status toward which we gravitate
    • may be what is most important to us, such as our status as a parent, or what is most important to others such as one’s race or economic standing
  144. role
    the behavior of a specific status
  145. role expectations
    anticipated behaviors for a particular role
  146. role performance
    the degree to which a person plays the role in a manner we expect
  147. role conflicts
    a phenomenon occurring when one is forced to choose between the competing demands of multiple roles
  148. role strain
    when the demands and expectations of one role are impossible for us to satisfy
  149. stigma
    a mark of disgrace associated with a particular status, quality, or person
  150. discredited stigma
    a stigma that cannot be hidden from others or is no longer hidden from others
  151. discreditable stigma
    a stigma that can be concealed from others
  152. stages of societal change
    • hunting and gathering societies
    • agricultural societies
    • industrial societies
    • postindustrial societies
  153. agricultural societies
    –Pastoral and horticultural societies emerged when humans learned to domesticate plants and animals.

    –Humans learned to use simple hand tools to till the soil and plant seeds and to raise animals.

    –Around 5,000 years ago with the invention of the plow, agricultural societies arose.
  154. industrial societies
    –During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Western world experienced an industrial revolution.

    –Complex machines such as the steam engine replaced human labor.

    –Technology was used to make goods.

    –A surplus developed and improved the standard of living.

    –There was less inequality than in agricultural societies.
  155. postindustrial society
    –Refers to the societal change when people move from an economy based on manufacturing to one based on services and technology.

    • –These societies tend to seek manufacturing goods and food from other societies.
    • There are large surpluses of wealth
  156. qualities of postindustrial society
    • 1.A shift from manufacturing to services
    • 2.The centrality of the new science based industries
    • 3.The rise of new technical elites
  157. social institution
    structures that provide for patterned relationships
  158. family
    • cultural universal
    • exist in various forms in all societies
    • teach the value of sharing and mutual support
    • provide safety and security needs for their members
    • pass on important values and provide for children and the elderly
  159. educational system
    transfer knowledge and information of the society to new members – they can be formal or informal
  160. religious system
    • vary a great deal, but most religions unify people through an organized system of beliefs
    • stabilizaes society and provides framwork for people to live their lives
  161. economic systems
    • help people get what they need
    • allow for the consumption, production and transition of goods in an orderly fashion
    • involved bartering, more advanced societies use money as a system of exchange
  162. political systems
    • distribute power in society
    • used to create law
    • legal system enforces the laws to maintain social order and promote unity
  163. mechanical solidarity
    refers to simple societies where all the individuals are interconnected by a simple division of labor
  164. organic solidarity
    refers to more complex societies where there are many forms of work and the division of labor is much more complex.
  165. four zones of personal space
    • intimate distance
    • personal distance
    • social distance
    • public distance
  166. intimate distance
    distance reserved for those with whom we are very close
  167. personal distance
    distance that ranges from 18 inches to 4 feet, distance for normal conversation
  168. social distance
    distance that ranges from 4 feet to 12 feet and is usually for formal settings
  169. public distance
    • to zone of interaction that is used in highly formal settings
    • distance greater than 12 feet
  170. dramaturgy
    a theory of interaction in which all life is like acting
  171. impression management
    management of the impression that the performer makes on others
  172. front stage
    • what the audience sees
    • the part of ourselves that we present to others
  173. backstage
    the demeanor that incorporates our true feelings and beliefs
  174. embarrassment
    state that occurs when we realize our act has failed
  175. face-saving work
    reaction to embarrassment, either humor, anger or retreat
  176. demographic similarity
    shared characteristics such as race, gender or age
  177. supervisor-focused management
    techniques that involve flattering your boss and agreeing with his or her opinion or avoiding disagreement.
  178. self-focused management
    techniques that include acting modest about your accomplishments, boasting occasionally about your successes
  179. five primary tasks of society to create social structures (functionalism)
    • 1.adaption and replacement
    • 2.orientation and socialization
    • 3.production and economy
    • order
    • 5. unity and purpose
  180. social groups
    groups that consist of two or more people who interact with one another and share a common identity
  181. primary groups
    • small, intimate and long lasting
    • ex. family, close friends
  182. secondary groups
    • formal, superficial, and last for a short or fixed time
    • ex. civic groups
  183. bounded relationships
    • relationships that exist only under specific conditions
    • exists in secondary groups often that are of relatively short duration
  184. in-group
    a group to which we feel an affinity or closeness
  185. in-group bias
    the feeling that a person’s in-group is superior to others’
  186. out-group
    • a group from which we are disconnected
    • often hold negative biases towards these groups
  187. reference groups
    • the group that you use to evaluate yourself
    • used to compare ourselves to another person or group
  188. dyad
    • a group consisting of only two persons
    • usually a very close relationship
  189. triad
    • a group consisting of three persons
    • George Simmel:the weakest group size
  190. leadership style
    a behavior mode that leaders use to influence group members
  191. the three leadership styles
    • autocratic leader
    • democratic leader
    • laissez-faire leader
  192. autocratic leader
    a leader who determines the group policies and assigns roles
  193. democratic leader
    a leader who strives to set group policy by discussion and agreement
  194. laissez-faire leader
    a leader who leads by absence and may in fact not want to be a leader at all
  195. points about leadership style
    • 1.There's no “right” type of style
    • 2.Successful leaders adapt the style to the situation
    • 3.The process of leadership impacts both the group members and the leader.
    • 4.Leadership styles are learnable.
    • 5.Different styles can be effective in certain situation and/or with certain groups of people.
  196. conformity
    the degree to which we will alter our behavior, attitudes, and points of view to fit into our perceived expectation of what is appropriate
  197. groupthink
    • group decisions that are made without objective thought
    • People conform to what they believe is the consensus of the rest of the group
  198. conditions of groupthink
    • Group cohesiveness
    • External threat
    • Strong leadership
  199. shortcomings of groupthink
    • 1.Illusion of invulnerability
    • 2.Belief in inherent morality
    • 3.Stereotyped views of out-groups
    • 4.Collective rationalization
    • 5.Direct pressure on dissenters
    • 6.Self-censorship
    • 7.Illusion of unanimity
    • 8.Self-appointed mind guards
  200. social capital
    a sociological concept that refers to the individual and collective resources available to a person
  201. social network
    the web of ties you have with others
  202. forms of social networking
    • 1.Traditional networks (family and close friends)
    • 2.Church networks (church family)
    • 3.Contract networks (economic networks)
  203. formal organizations
    groups created for a certain purpose and built for maximum efficiency
  204. voluntary association
    the act of joining an organization that offers no pay and that expands social networks through interaction
  205. organizations
    formal groups that exist to achieve a desired goal
  206. types of organization
    • utilitarian organizations
    • normative organizations
    • coercive organizations
  207. utilitarian organizations
    an organization in which people receive wages in exchange for work
  208. normative organizations
    organizations that exist to achieve a worthwhile goal
  209. coercive organizations
    organizations that people are forced to join
  210. qualities that keep formal organizations running smoothly
    • division of labor
    • concentration of power
    • methods of succession
  211. division of labor
    tasks are clearly defined
  212. concentration of power
    power is in the hand of a few
  213. methods of succession
    replacement of members
  214. formal structures
    the explicit rules, goals, and guidelines of an organization
  215. informal structures
    friendships, allegiances, and loyalties among members of an organization
  216. bureaucracies
    • formal organizations that are organized into a hierarchy of smaller departments
    • Max Weber was one of the firsts to discuss it
    • logical extension of formal rational thought
  217. formal rationality
    the reasonable actions organizations and bureaucracies take to achieve goals
  218. goal of large organization
    strive toward formal rationality and bureaucracy
  219. iron cage
    • concept by Max Weber
    • refers to the way in which bureaucracies make workers feel trapped and turn them into little more than robots accomplishing tasks
  220. levels of model of leadership
    • positional leaders
    • permission leaders
    • production leaders
    • people development
    • personhood
  221. positional leaders
    other people give positional leaders the reins of leadership
  222. permission leaders
    people follow because they want to
  223. production leaders
    people follow because of what you have done
  224. people development
    people follow because they are empowered
  225. perosnhood
    people follow because of who you are
  226. conflict theorists view of bureaucracy
    • Karl Marx
    • believed that ‘bureaucracy was a circle from which one could not escape’
    • bureaucracy was the way the bourgeoisie exploited workers and more efficiently gained more wealth and control for themselves
  227. sybolic interactionists view of democratic workplace
    • traditional bureaucracies create ineffective work environments because workers are disconnected
    • team approaches in management encourage democracy in the workplace.
  228. adult civic engagement & childhood activities
    • McFarland and Thomas
    • suggest that your involvement as a child impacts your willingness to engage in political action in the future
  229. socialization
    • the process that teaches the:
    • norms
    • values
    • and other aspects of the culture to new group members
  230. primary socialization
    Socialization that occurs during childhood
  231. secondary socialization
    Socialization that continues throughout life
  232. nature
    the belief that genetic and biological heredity are the primary causes of human behaviors
  233. nurture
    the belief that the way in which we think, feel and behave are the results of our environment
  234. agents of socialization
    • the people and groups that shape our self-concept, beliefs and behavior
    •,social class,neighborhood,religion,education,media
  235. parenting styles
    • authoritative
    • permissive
    • authoritarian
  236. authoritative parenting style
    a parenting style in which parents listen to their children’s input while consistently enforcing the parent’s rules
  237. permissive parenting style
    parents provide high levels of support but an inconsistent enforcement of rules
  238. authoritarian parenting style
    children experience high levels of social control but low levels of emotional support
  239. resocialization
    • process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors and abandoning old ones
    • used in total institutions
  240. Cooley's theory on socialization
    • the self developed in 3 main stages (looking-glass self):
    • 1.we imagine how we appear to others
    • 2.we draw general conclusion based on the reaction of others
    • 3.we develop our sense of personal identity based on evaluation of other's reactions
Card Set:
Sociology Exam 1
2011-09-27 21:23:35

Chapter 1-9, Intro to Sociology
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