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What is Immunity or Resistance?
Ability to fight off damage or disease through our defenses.
What are the 2 types of Immunity?
- 1. Innate or nonspecific (present at birth).
- 2. Adaptive or specific (recognition of invader through
- memory omponant)
The Lymphatic system consists of?
- 1. Lymph
- 2. Lymphatic vessels
- 3. Structures or Organs containing lymphatic tissue
- 4. Red bone marrow
The 3 functions of the Lymphatic system?
- 1. Transport dietary lipids
- 2. Drain excess interstitial fluid
- 3. Carry our immune responses
An important function of the lymphatic vessles is?
To return lost plasma protein to the blood stream.
Two pumps which aid venous lymph flow are?
- 1. Skeletal muscle (Squeezing)
- 2. Respiratory (Sucking)
The primary lymphatic organs are?
- 1. Red Bone Marrow
- 2. Thymus
Secondary Lymphatic organs are?
- 1. Lymph nodes
- 2. Spleen
- 3. Lymph nodules
The spleen is?
The largest single mass of lymphatic tissue in the body
What is white plulp?
Lymphatic tissue and Macrophanges, which is scattered through out the spleen.
What is Red Pulp?
Blood filled venous sinuses and splendic cords - RBC's, macrophanges, lymphocytes, plasma cells, granulocytes.
Some larger lymphatic nodules are?
- 1. Tonsils
- 2. peyers patches
- 3. Appendix
What are two of the first line of innate immunity defenses?
- 1. Skin
- 2. Mucous
- Both provide a physical and chemical barrier.
What are other physical barriers to the innate immunity defense?
- 1. Epidermis (Skin)
- 2. Mucous membranes
- 3. Nose hairs
- 4. Cilia of upper respiratory tract
What are some fluid barriers to the innate immunity defense?
- 1. Lacrimal apperatus of the eye (tears).
- 2. Saliva
- 3. Vaginal secretion
- 4. Deficating
- 5. Vomiting
What do Natural Killer cells do?
Recognize abnormal markers on cells and attack them.
Natural Killer cells are?
Lymphocytes, but not B or T cells.
What is perforin?
It is a protein granule, that the NK cell inserts into the plasma membrane of a target cell and creates perforations in the membrane.
What are the 5 steps of Phagocytosis?
- 1. Chemotaxis
- 2. Adherence
- 3. Ingestion
- 4. Digestion
- 5. Killing
What is inflammation?
A nonspecific defensive response of the body to tissue damage.
Four signs and symptoms of inflammation?
- 1. Pain
- 2. Redness
- 3. Heat
- 4. Swelling
Reasons for inflammation?
- 1. Attempt to dispose of Microbes
- 2. Prevent spread
- 3. Prepare site for tissue repair
Three basic stages of inflammation are?
- 1. Vasodialation and increased blood vessel permeability.
- 2. Emigration of cells
- 3. Tissue repair
What is Pus?
Dead phagocytes and damaged tissue.
What is adaptive immunity?
The bodies ability to defend itself against specific invading agents.
What is an Anitgen (AG)?
An antigen are substances recognized as foreign and provoking an immune response.
How do you distinguish between Innate immunity, and Adaptive immunity?
- Adaptive immunity is,
- 1. Specific
- 2. Memory
CD4 cells are what?
Are helper T cells
CD8 cells are what?
T cells which eat up other cells.