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The ability of some bacteria to resist decolorization by acids during staining procedures
Single celled microorganisms with no cell nuclues or any other membrane bound organelles. Despite their visual similarity to Bacteria, genetically and metabolically they are distinct.
single cell prokaryotic organisms
any rod shaped bacteria
a collection of cells adhering to each other on a surface
a polysacchride or protein outermost layer, usually slimey, present on some types of bacteria
spherical shaped bacteria
blue-green algae, a phylum of bacteria thought to have converted the early atmosphere from reducing to an oxidative atmosphere
the permeable barrier of cell, seperating the cytoplasm from the outside
Dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid or PDC)
a chemical compound which composes 5% to 15% of the dry weight of bacterial spores.It is implicated as responsible for the heat resistance of the endospore
a highly heat resistant, thick walled structure produced by gram-positive bacteria
a toxin that is a structural molecule of the bacteria that is recognized by the immune system found in gram-negative bacteria
a long chain of protein subunits bundled together for strength and rigidity
hairlike appendage on the surface of the cell (some scientists reserve pili for those appendages that are used in the transfer of genetic material in bacterial conjugation)
long, thin cellular appendage capable of rotation and responsible for swimming motility among prokaryotic cells.
the protein, found inside the flagellum structure, that forms the long filament of the flagellum
- general term referring to extracellular polymeric material (glycoprotein) produced by some bacteria, or slime
- + cushions the plasma membrane
- + Enables the immune system to
- + recognize and selectively attack foreign organisms
- + Forms the basis for compatibility of blood transfusions, tissue grafts, and organ transplants
- + Binds cells together so that tissues do not fall apart
bacterial cell with cell wall that contains few petidoglycans and has an outer membrane containing lipopolysacchrides, lipoproteins and other complex molecules
a bacteria whose cell wall consists cheifly of peptidoglycan, lacking the outer membrane of gram negative cells.
similar to cholesterol in eukaryotic cells theses are pentacyclic compounds (containing five rings), whose primary function is to improve plasma membrane strength and rigidity in Bacteria.
a major constituent of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, it is a phosphorylated polyalcohol.
LTA may bind to target cells non-specifically through membrane phospholipids, or specifically to CD14 and to Toll-like receptors
shares many pathogenic similarities with endotoxins
LPS - Lipopolysaccharides
forms the major portion of outer membrane of gram negative bacteria
act as endotoxins and elicit strong immune responses in animals
implicated in non-pathogenic aspects of bacterial ecology, including surface adhesion, bacteriophage sensitivity, and interactions with predators such as amoebae
Monera have been divided into two domains, Archaea and Bacteria
- aerobic and nonmotile bacteria that are characteristically acid-alcohol fast. they do not contain endospores or capsules and are usually considered Gram-positive
- tuberculosis is a mycobacterium
magnetite (Fe3O4) enclosed by membrane in cytoplasm, allows bacteria to be magnotactic.
bacteria without cell wall (unaffected by many antibiotics b/c of this.
most require sterols for the stability of their cytoplasmic membrane. Sterols are acquired from the environment, usually as cholesterol from the animal host
also known as murein
peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall is a crystal lattice structure formed from linear chains of two alternating amino sugars
results in a 3-dimensional structure that is strong and rigid (possible peptidase inhibition)
a gel-like region between the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane and the inner surface of the lipopolysacchride layer in gram negative bacteria
area of genetic material in prokaryotes, no membrane
poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB)
common inclusion body in prokaryotes,
related to PHA (poly-beta-hydroalkanoate)
last universal common ancestor
A group of trimeric proteins that form pores of a fixed diameter through the lipid bilayer of the membrane
organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles.
Gram-negative, with an outer membrane mainly composed of lipopolysaccharides. Many move about using flagella, but some are non-motile or rely on bacterial gliding.
Most members are facultatively or obligately anaerobic, chemoautotrophs, and heterotrophic, but there are numerous exceptions
They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, and many other notable genera
part of the cell envelope commonly found in bacteria, as well as among archaea . It is the outermost interaction zone and
consists of a monomolecular layer composed of identical proteins or glycoproteins. This two-dimensional structure is built via self-assembly and encloses the whole cell surface
phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled (spiral-shaped) cells. They are chemoheterotrophic and distinguished from other bacterial phyla by the location of their flagella, sometimes called axial filaments, which run lengthwise between the bacterial inner membrane and outer membrane in periplasmic space. These cause a twisting motion which allows the spirochaete to move about.
bacterium with a cell body that twists like a spiral
major cell wall component of some archaea that differs from bacterial peptidoglycan in chemical structure, but resembles eubacterial peptidoglycan in morphology, function, and physical structure.