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2011-09-08 22:09:20
prokaryote morphology

First Set of Cards for Bacteriology at SJC
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  1. Acid Fast
    The ability of some bacteria to resist decolorization by acids during staining procedures
  2. Archaea
    Single celled microorganisms with no cell nuclues or any other membrane bound organelles. Despite their visual similarity to Bacteria, genetically and metabolically they are distinct.
  3. Bacteria
    single cell prokaryotic organisms
  4. bacillus
    any rod shaped bacteria
  5. Biofilm
    a collection of cells adhering to each other on a surface
  6. Capsule
    a polysacchride or protein outermost layer, usually slimey, present on some types of bacteria
  7. coccus
    spherical shaped bacteria
  8. Cynobacteria
    blue-green algae, a phylum of bacteria thought to have converted the early atmosphere from reducing to an oxidative atmosphere
  9. Cytoplasmic membrane
    the permeable barrier of cell, seperating the cytoplasm from the outside
  10. Dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid or PDC)
    a chemical compound which composes 5% to 15% of the dry weight of bacterial spores.It is implicated as responsible for the heat resistance of the endospore
  11. endospore
    a highly heat resistant, thick walled structure produced by gram-positive bacteria
  12. endotoxin
    a toxin that is a structural molecule of the bacteria that is recognized by the immune system found in gram-negative bacteria
  13. filament
    a long chain of protein subunits bundled together for strength and rigidity
  14. Fimbriae/ Pili
    hairlike appendage on the surface of the cell (some scientists reserve pili for those appendages that are used in the transfer of genetic material in bacterial conjugation)
  15. flagellum
    long, thin cellular appendage capable of rotation and responsible for swimming motility among prokaryotic cells.
  16. Falgellin
    the protein, found inside the flagellum structure, that forms the long filament of the flagellum
  17. glycocalyx
    • general term referring to extracellular polymeric material (glycoprotein) produced by some bacteria, or slime
    • Functions
    • + cushions the plasma membrane
    • + Enables the immune system to
    • + recognize and selectively attack foreign organisms
    • + Forms the basis for compatibility of blood transfusions, tissue grafts, and organ transplants
    • + Binds cells together so that tissues do not fall apart
  18. Gram Negative
    bacterial cell with cell wall that contains few petidoglycans and has an outer membrane containing lipopolysacchrides, lipoproteins and other complex molecules
  19. Gram Positive
    a bacteria whose cell wall consists cheifly of peptidoglycan, lacking the outer membrane of gram negative cells.
  20. Hopanoids
    similar to cholesterol in eukaryotic cells theses are pentacyclic compounds (containing five rings), whose primary function is to improve plasma membrane strength and rigidity in Bacteria.
  21. lipoteichoic acids
    a major constituent of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, it is a phosphorylated polyalcohol.

    LTA may bind to target cells non-specifically through membrane phospholipids, or specifically to CD14 and to Toll-like receptors

    shares many pathogenic similarities with endotoxins
  22. LPS - Lipopolysaccharides
    forms the major portion of outer membrane of gram negative bacteria

    act as endotoxins and elicit strong immune responses in animals

    implicated in non-pathogenic aspects of bacterial ecology, including surface adhesion, bacteriophage sensitivity, and interactions with predators such as amoebae
  23. Monera
    Monera have been divided into two domains, Archaea and Bacteria
  24. Mycobacteria
    • aerobic and nonmotile bacteria that are characteristically acid-alcohol fast. they do not contain endospores or capsules and are usually considered Gram-positive
    • tuberculosis is a mycobacterium
  25. Magnetosome
    magnetite (Fe3O4) enclosed by membrane in cytoplasm, allows bacteria to be magnotactic.
  26. Mycoplasma
    bacteria without cell wall (unaffected by many antibiotics b/c of this.

    most require sterols for the stability of their cytoplasmic membrane. Sterols are acquired from the environment, usually as cholesterol from the animal host
  27. Peptidoglycan
    also known as murein

    peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall is a crystal lattice structure formed from linear chains of two alternating amino sugars

    results in a 3-dimensional structure that is strong and rigid (possible peptidase inhibition)
  28. Periplasm
    a gel-like region between the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane and the inner surface of the lipopolysacchride layer in gram negative bacteria
  29. nucleoid
    area of genetic material in prokaryotes, no membrane
  30. poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB)
    common inclusion body in prokaryotes,

    related to PHA (poly-beta-hydroalkanoate)

    stores carbon
  31. LUCA
    last universal common ancestor
  32. Porin
    A group of trimeric proteins that form pores of a fixed diameter through the lipid bilayer of the membrane
  33. Prokaryote
    organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles.
  34. Proteobacteria
    Gram-negative, with an outer membrane mainly composed of lipopolysaccharides. Many move about using flagella, but some are non-motile or rely on bacterial gliding.

    Most members are facultatively or obligately anaerobic, chemoautotrophs, and heterotrophic, but there are numerous exceptions

    They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, and many other notable genera
  35. S-layer
    part of the cell envelope commonly found in bacteria, as well as among archaea . It is the outermost interaction zone and

    consists of a monomolecular layer composed of identical proteins or glycoproteins. This two-dimensional structure is built via self-assembly and encloses the whole cell surface
  36. Spirochaetes
    phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled (spiral-shaped) cells.[1] They are chemoheterotrophic and distinguished from other bacterial phyla by the location of their flagella, sometimes called axial filaments, which run lengthwise between the bacterial inner membrane and outer membrane in periplasmic space. These cause a twisting motion which allows the spirochaete to move about.
  37. Spirillum
    bacterium with a cell body that twists like a spiral
  38. Pseudomurein
    major cell wall component of some archaea that differs from bacterial peptidoglycan in chemical structure, but resembles eubacterial peptidoglycan in morphology, function, and physical structure.