bilogy ch. 2

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  1. Compound
    • is a substance consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio
    • -sodium chloride
    • -table salt
  2. Trace elements
    • -are essential but are only needed in minimum quantities
    • -iron you can become anemic
    • -iodine prevents production of thyroid hormones, resulting in goiter.
  3. Atom
    • -is the smallest unit if matter that still retains the properties of an element.
    • -protons +
    • -neutrons
    • -electrons -
  4. Atomic Number
    the number of protons
  5. Atomic Mass
    • -is approximately equal to its mass number
    • -is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
  6. isotopes
    • -the same number of protons
    • -different number of neutrons
    • -different isotopes of an element behave identically in chemical reactions
  7. Electron Shell
    • electrons occur
    • -2 in the first shell
    • -8 in the 2nd shell
  8. Covalant Bond
    • -The strongest kind of bond in which 2 atoms share one or more outer shell electrons
    • -ex. molecule
  9. Ionic Bonds
    • -2 ions with opposite charges attract each other
    • - when the attraction holds the ions together
    • ex. salt
  10. Hydrogen Bond
    • -positevily charged region is always a hydrogen atom,
    • -are very weak bonds, can be broken down very easily
    • -important for us to stay alive
    • ex. water
  11. Reactants
    • -react to produce the product
    • h2 and O2
  12. Cohesion
    the tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together
  13. adhesion
    the tendency of two kinds of molecules to stick together
  14. Photosynthesis
    • -is a chemical reaction that is essential to life on earth
    • ex. carbon dioxide (from the air) reacts with water
  15. Porperties of Water
    • Gas: Evaportion
    • Liquid: water
    • Solid:Ice
  16. buffer
    a substance that minimizes cahnges in pH
  17. Solution
    is a liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of two or more substances
  18. solvent
    the dissolving agent
  19. solute
    the substance that is dissolved
  20. Acid
    • -adds or removes acid
    • ex. battery acid, lemon gastric orange juice, vinegar, cola, tomato juice, rain water, human urine, saliva
  21. Base
    • Donates or accepts H+
    • ex. sea water, magnesia milk, bleach, oven cleaner
  22. neutral
    ex. pure water, human blood, tears
  23. pH scale
    • -Below 7 is acidic
    • -Above 7 is basic
  24. Acid Precipitation
    the acids fall to Earth as "" which is rain, snow, or fog with a pH lower than 5.2
  25. Ocean Acidification
    CO 2 dissolving in seawater lower ocean pH in a process
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bilogy ch. 2
2011-09-09 03:42:28
basic bio

basic biology
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