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2011-09-09 01:21:57

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  1. pathophysiogy
    • Breakdown or disorder of the human body’s
    • functions
  2. what is PATHOGENESIS
    Development of disease
  3. what is Etiology?
    • study of all factors that may be involved in development of a
    • disease.

    • etiologic factors: biologic agents, physical forces, chemical
    • agents, nutritional deficits or excesses person’s susceptibility, way in which
    • pathogen enters body
  4. Hippocrates
    • (Greek)
    • diseases were caused by four humors: blood from heart, yellow bile from liver,
    • black bile from spleen, phlegm from brain. Thought health came from exercise,
    • moderate diet and resting when ill.
  5. Transcription
    • the
    • process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA template
  6. what is MUTATIONS?
    •Error in genetic material

    •Classified according to where they occur
  7. who is Galen?
  8. Roman Did a lot of anatomical studies: nerves, blood vessels. Physician to
    • gladiators. Little dissection after his death for next 1400 years. Thought
    • heart warmed the blood
  9. who isVesalius?
    • Italian. Master of dissection. Also
    • described how body parts worked
  10. who isWilliam Harvey?
    • : English
    • described circulation of blood which is pumped by heart. Also described blood
    • pressure
  11. who is Leeuwenhoek?
    • Dutch
    • Developed a better microscope set the stage for cellular biology
  12. who is Jenner?
    • :
    • English First vaccination. Injected pus from cowpox into arm of boy. This kept
    • him from contracting smallpox
  13. who is Lister?
    • did
    • not invent Listerine! Thought that microbes caused infections. Washed wounds
    • with carbolic acid
  14. who is Nightingale?
    • promoted
    • sanitation as a weapon against disease. Worked during the Crimean war in
    • 1850’s. Was able to greatly reduce death rate from 40% of wounded to 2%.
  15. who is Pasteur?
    • French
    • studied fermentation and determined it was caused by microorganisms. Developed
    • pasteurization to prevent souring of wine
  16. who is Knoch?
    • :
    • German. identified the bacillus which caused anthrax. First microbe to be
    • identified as a cause of disease
  17. who is Rontgen?
    • German.
    • Discovered X rays – could see internal organs without wounds or dissection
  18. American Red Cross
    • established
    • a nursing service for poor rural areas
  19. who is Ehrlich?
    • German
    • discovered certain chemicals would damage microbes but not the human host. Used
    • an arsenic compound to treat syphilis
  20. who is Fleming?
    • :
    • English discovered penicillin would kill certain bacteria staphylococci. Didn’t
    • go into production until the 1940’s (WW2
  21. Banting and Best
    • isolated
    • insulin and used it for treating diabetes
  22. National Tuberculosis Association
    • :
    • educate public to reduce fear of disease and bring about early diagnosis. No
    • effective medicine until 1945. Before that: good nourishment, fresh air and
    • rest.
  23. who is Salk?
    • :
    • first polio vaccine; used killed viruses died in 1995 U of Pittsburgh
  24. who is Sabin?
    • oral
    • polio vaccine; used attenuated polio viruses died in 1993. U of Cincy
  25. who is John Gibbon?
    • developed
    • first heart lung machine for use in surgery. Philadelphia
  26. who is Christiaan Barnard?
    • :
    • South Africa. first heart transplant. Washkansky survived the operation and lived for eighteen days. However, he succumbed to pneumonia
    • induced by the immunosuppressive drugs he was taking. Next patient in 1968
    • lived 19 months. One lived 12 years and one over 23 years.

    • Many
    • other advances.
  27. what is cristae?
    The inner folding of mitochondria
  28. what is a matrix?
    • Space
    • inside the inner membrane is called the Matrix. This is where many of the reactions of cellular
    • respiration occur.

    • Produces
    • ATP
  29. what is Endoplasmic reticulum?
    • is
    • continuous with the nuclear envelope
  30. Rough
    • has
    • ribosomes on outer surface
    • Also will sequester large amounts of calcium in muscle cells – there it is
    • called sarcoplasmic reticulum
  31. Smooth ER
    • no
    • ribosomes. Involved in lipid
    • metabolism
    Formed by Golgi Complex

    Contain various enzymes

    • Tay
    • Sachs Disease
  33. what is Adaptation
    • occurs
    • when cells are subjected to persistent, sub lethal stress
    Cells become smaller
  35. cause of atrophy:



    nutrient starvation

    poor endocrine stimulation

  36. what is Disuse?
    • in
    • a cast, paralysis, bed rest disuse
    • atrophy. Mostly with muscle cells.
    • Atrophy is reversible and when normal use returns, cells will return to
    • original size.
  37. what is Ischemia?
    • : inadequate blood
    • supply. Especially
    • dangerous for heart and brain
  38. what is Aging?
    • usually
    • affects brain cells and endocrine-dependent organs: gonads. Also heart
  39. what is Nutrient starvation?
    • poor
    • intake, poor absorption or poor distribution to tissues
  40. what is Poor endocrine stimulation?
    • most tissues depend on growth stimulating hormonal
    • signals

    Hypothalamus and pituitary stimulate many tissues

    • Ex: breasts and reproductive organs in post menopausal
    • women
  41. what is Denervation?
    • loss of
    • nervous stimulation; paralysis – leads to disuse
  42. what is HYPERTROPHY?
    •Cells get larger
  43. what is Compensatory?
    • When
    • part of organ or tissue is removed or becomes inactive ex kidney removal. Other
    • one will become larger.
  44. what is HYPERPLASIA?
    Increase in # of cells

    Increased cell division
  45. what is Metaplasia?
    • One type of
    • mature cell is replaced

    • by another
    • type
    • example:
    • Epithelium or mesenchymal tissue

  46. what is DYSPLASIA?
    Deranged cell growth
    • Once stress is removed, recover
    • •Two main events:

    •Hydropic Swelling

    •Substance Accumulation
  48. hydropic swelling
    • :
    • Na-K pumps malfunction and Na accumulates within the cell.

    • This
    • pulls water into cell (osmosis) and the
    • cytoplasm is diluted. Mitochondria will become swollen.

    • This
    • can cause an entire organ to enlarge.
  49. Substances accumulate
    • in
    • the cells. The can be harmful because the accumulations are toxic OR because
    • they take up space needed for cellular functions.
    INJURY result from?
    • Extent
    • of injury depends in part on the duration and severity of assault and in part
    • on the prior condition of the cells.

    • Well nourished and
    • somewhat adapted cells may withstand injury better than poorly nourished or unadapted cells
  51. Types of accumulation
    •Excessive amounts of normal substances

    •Accumulation of abnormal substances

    •Accumulation of non-degradable substances

    •Most accumulations are reversible
  52. Abnormal substances
    • these are often produced by the cells. With diabetes,
    • neurons may take up too much glucose
    • which is changed to SORBITOL – this pulls water into cell. Excess water
    • interferes with impulse conduction.

    • Pigments may accumulate – some accumulation is normal
    • i.e. when we tan our skin accumulate melanin
  53. Non-degradable substances
    : Lead, pigments, coal dust, silica dust

    • Pigments
    • from tattoos, and natural
    • sources: bilirubin, lipofuscin (lipid rich age spot
    • pigment) hemoglobin, ferritin. Melanin
  54. Lead
    • will
    • get a blue lead line along the edge of the gums
  55. causes of cell injuries
    • - lack of oxygen

    • -most
    • common type of cell injury
    • : Ischemia

    shortage of O2 in air

    obstruction of respiratory system

    drop in # of RBC’s or hemoglobin

  56. cause of cell injuries
    •Free radicals
  57. what are free radicals?
    • Free
    • radicals are atoms or group of atoms that has an unpaired electron in its outer
    • orbit. They are very unstable and will enter into chain reactions and form
    • unstable bonds in important molecules in the cell. Will also produce more free
    • radicals. Get a cascade of reactions which produce more free radicals
    • Free radicals can denature proteins and inactivate
    • enzymes, damage cell membranes, disrupt chromosomes.

    • They are the
    • byproducts of normal reactions – especially during hypoxia
    They are also formed by exposure to UV light and X rays.

    • Toxicity of some drugs and chemicals can be attributed
    • to conversion of the chemicals to free radicals.

    • Recent research links them to cardiovascular disease,
    • diabetes mellitus, hypertension, macular degeneration and chronic heart failure
    • among others
  60. Free Radicals can be inactivated by
    antioxidants such as:
    vitamin C

    vitamin E

    beta carotene, etc

    also by enzymes
    • inactivate
    • free radicals. Vitamins C and E, beta carotene, albumin are some of the
    • antioxidants.

    • Some
    • enzymes in the body will break them down and some will spontaneously decay.
  62. Chemical agents in cell injuries:
    • Formaldehyde
    • Carbon tetrachloride
  63. what is Formaldehyde?
    • an
    • important chemical used widely by industry to manufacture building materials
    • and numerous household products
  64. what is Carbon Tetrachloride?
    • - High exposure can cause liver, kidney, and
    • central nervous system damage
  65. types of necrosis:
    • . Coagulative necrosis
    • Liquefactive necrosis
    • Caseous necrosis
    • Fat necrosis
    • Gangrenous necrosis
  66. Gangrenous necrosis result from what?
    • usually
    • results from severe hypoxic injury with blockage of major arties. Common in
    • lower leg and feet. Large mass of tissue is undergoing necrosis.
  67. fat necrosis results from?
    • Cellular
    • destruction is caused when lipases (enzymes which break down lipids) break down
    • triglycerides releasing fatty acids.

    • Calcium, magnesium
    • and sodium ions combine with fatty acids, making soaps
  68. Caseous necrosis cause
    • commonly
    • occurs as a result of a tuberculous pulmonary infection
  69. Liquefactive necrosis cause?
    • necrosis
    • commonly results from ischemic injury to cells in the brain. Dead brain tissue
    • is readily affected by liquefactive necrosis because
    • brain cells have a lot of digestive enzymes and lipids and there is little
    • connective tissue
  70. Coagulative necrosis cause
    • 1.occurs primary in the
    • kidneys, heart and adrenal glands. Usually caused by severe ischemia or
    • hypoxia.

    • Coagulation occurs
    • when proteins are in the cell are denatured
  71. what is Apoptosis?
    fallen apart.Normal replacement of worn out cells