Card Set Information
Breakdown or disorder of the human body’s
what is PATHOGENESIS
Development of disease
what is Etiology?
study of all factors that may be involved in development of a
: biologic agents, physical forces, chemical
agents, nutritional deficits or excesses person’s susceptibility, way in which
pathogen enters body
diseases were caused by four humors
: blood from heart, yellow bile from liver,
black bile from spleen, phlegm from brain. Thought health came from exercise,
moderate diet and resting when ill.
process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA template
what is MUTATIONS?
•Error in genetic material
•Classified according to where they occur
who is Galen?
Roman Did a lot of anatomical studies: nerves, blood vessels. Physician to
gladiators. Little dissection after his death for next 1400 years. Thought
heart warmed the blood
Italian. Master of dissection. Also
described how body parts worked
who isWilliam Harvey?
described circulation of blood which is pumped by heart. Also described blood
who is Leeuwenhoek?
Developed a better microscope set the stage for cellular biology
who is Jenner?
English First vaccination. Injected pus from cowpox into arm of boy. This kept
him from contracting smallpox
who is Lister?
not invent Listerine! Thought that microbes caused infections. Washed wounds
with carbolic acid
who is Nightingale?
sanitation as a weapon against disease. Worked during the Crimean war in
1850’s. Was able to greatly reduce death rate from 40% of wounded to 2%.
who is Pasteur?
studied fermentation and determined it was caused by microorganisms. Developed
pasteurization to prevent souring of wine
who is Knoch?
German. identified the bacillus which caused anthrax. First microbe to be
identified as a cause of disease
who is Rontgen?
Discovered X rays – could see internal organs without wounds or dissection
American Red Cross
a nursing service for poor rural areas
who is Ehrlich?
discovered certain chemicals would damage microbes but not the human host. Used
an arsenic compound to treat syphilis
who is Fleming?
English discovered penicillin would kill certain bacteria staphylococci. Didn’t
go into production until the 1940’s (WW2
Banting and Best
insulin and used it for treating diabetes
National Tuberculosis Association
educate public to reduce fear of disease and bring about early diagnosis. No
effective medicine until 1945. Before that
: good nourishment, fresh air and
who is Salk?
first polio vaccine; used killed viruses died in 1995 U of Pittsburgh
who is Sabin?
polio vaccine; used attenuated polio viruses died in 1993. U of Cincy
who is John Gibbon?
first heart lung machine for use in surgery. Philadelphia
who is Christiaan Barnard?
South Africa. first heart transplant. Washkansky survived the operation and lived for eighteen days. However, he succumbed to pneumonia
induced by the immunosuppressive drugs he was taking. Next patient in 1968
lived 19 months. One lived 12 years and one over 23 years.
what is cristae?
The inner folding of mitochondria
what is a matrix?
inside the inner membrane is called the Matrix. This is where many of the reactions of cellular
what is Endoplasmic reticulum?
continuous with the nuclear envelope
ribosomes on outer surface
Also will sequester large amounts of calcium in muscle cells – there it is
called sarcoplasmic reticulum
ribosomes. Involved in lipid
Formed by Golgi Complex
Contain various enzymes
what is Adaptation
when cells are subjected to persistent, sub lethal stress
Cells become smaller
cause of atrophy:
poor endocrine stimulation
what is Disuse?
a cast, paralysis, bed rest disuse
atrophy. Mostly with muscle cells.
Atrophy is reversible and when normal use returns, cells will return to
what is Ischemia?
: inadequate blood
dangerous for heart and brain
what is Aging?
affects brain cells and endocrine-dependent organs
: gonads. Also heart
what is Nutrient starvation?
intake, poor absorption or poor distribution to tissues
what is Poor endocrine stimulation?
most tissues depend on growth stimulating hormonal
Hypothalamus and pituitary stimulate many tissues
: breasts and reproductive organs in post menopausal
what is Denervation?
nervous stimulation; paralysis – leads to disuse
what is HYPERTROPHY?
•Cells get larger
what is Compensatory?
part of organ or tissue is removed or becomes inactive ex kidney removal. Other
one will become larger.
what is HYPERPLASIA?
Increase in # of cells
Increased cell division
what is Metaplasia?
One type of
mature cell is replaced
Epithelium or mesenchymal tissue
what is DYSPLASIA?
Deranged cell growth
REVERSIBLE CELL INJURY
Once stress is removed, recover
•Two main events:
Na-K pumps malfunction and Na accumulates within the cell.
pulls water into cell (osmosis) and the
cytoplasm is diluted. Mitochondria will become swollen.
can cause an entire organ to enlarge.
the cells. The can be harmful because the accumulations are toxic OR because
they take up space needed for cellular functions.
INJURY result from?
of injury depends in part on the duration and severity of assault and in part
on the prior condition of the cells.
Well nourished and
somewhat adapted cells may withstand injury better than poorly nourished or unadapted cells
Types of accumulation
•Excessive amounts of normal substances
•Accumulation of abnormal substances
•Accumulation of non-degradable substances
•Most accumulations are reversible
these are often produced by the cells. With diabetes,
neurons may take up too much glucose
which is changed to SORBITOL – this pulls water into cell. Excess water
interferes with impulse conduction.
Pigments may accumulate – some accumulation is normal
i.e. when we tan our skin accumulate melanin
: Lead, pigments, coal dust, silica dust
from tattoos, and natural
: bilirubin, lipofuscin (lipid rich age spot
pigment) hemoglobin, ferritin. Melanin
get a blue lead line along the edge of the gums
causes of cell injuries
- lack of oxygen
common type of cell injury
shortage of O2 in air
obstruction of respiratory system
drop in # of RBC’s or hemoglobin
cause of cell injuries
what are free radicals?
radicals are atoms or group of atoms that has an unpaired electron in its outer
orbit. They are very unstable and will enter into chain reactions and form
unstable bonds in important molecules in the cell. Will also produce more free
radicals. Get a cascade of reactions which produce more free radicals
TRUE OR FALSE
Free radicals can denature proteins and inactivate
enzymes, damage cell membranes, disrupt chromosomes.
They are the
byproducts of normal reactions – especially during hypoxia
TRUE OR FALS ABOUT FREE RADICALS
They are also formed by exposure to UV light and X rays.
Toxicity of some drugs and chemicals can be attributed
to conversion of the chemicals to free radicals.
Recent research links them to cardiovascular disease,
diabetes mellitus, hypertension, macular degeneration and chronic heart failure
Free Radicals can be inactivated by
antioxidants such as:
beta carotene, etc
also by enzymes
FREE RADICALS CAN BE INACTIVATED BY
free radicals. Vitamins C and E, beta carotene, albumin are some of the
enzymes in the body will break them down and some will spontaneously decay.
Chemical agents in cell injuries:
what is Formaldehyde?
important chemical used widely by industry to manufacture building materials
and numerous household products
what is Carbon Tetrachloride?
- High exposure can cause liver, kidney, and
central nervous system damage
types of necrosis:
. Coagulative necrosis
Gangrenous necrosis result from what?
results from severe hypoxic injury with blockage of major arties. Common in
lower leg and feet. Large mass of tissue is undergoing necrosis.
fat necrosis results from?
destruction is caused when lipases (enzymes which break down lipids) break down
triglycerides releasing fatty acids.
and sodium ions combine with fatty acids, making soaps
Caseous necrosis cause
occurs as a result of a tuberculous pulmonary infection
Liquefactive necrosis cause?
commonly results from ischemic injury to cells in the brain. Dead brain tissue
is readily affected by liquefactive necrosis because
brain cells have a lot of digestive enzymes and lipids and there is little
Coagulative necrosis cause
1.occurs primary in the
kidneys, heart and adrenal glands. Usually caused by severe ischemia or
when proteins are in the cell are denatured
what is Apoptosis?
fallen apart.Normal replacement of worn out cells