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- Breakdown or disorder of the human body’s
what is PATHOGENESIS
Development of disease
what is Etiology?
- study of all factors that may be involved in development of a
- etiologic factors: biologic agents, physical forces, chemical
- agents, nutritional deficits or excesses person’s susceptibility, way in which
- pathogen enters body
- diseases were caused by four humors: blood from heart, yellow bile from liver,
- black bile from spleen, phlegm from brain. Thought health came from exercise,
- moderate diet and resting when ill.
- process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA template
what is MUTATIONS?
•Error in genetic material
•Classified according to where they occur
Roman Did a lot of anatomical studies: nerves, blood vessels. Physician to
- gladiators. Little dissection after his death for next 1400 years. Thought
- heart warmed the blood
- Italian. Master of dissection. Also
- described how body parts worked
who isWilliam Harvey?
- : English
- described circulation of blood which is pumped by heart. Also described blood
who is Leeuwenhoek?
- Developed a better microscope set the stage for cellular biology
who is Jenner?
- English First vaccination. Injected pus from cowpox into arm of boy. This kept
- him from contracting smallpox
who is Lister?
- not invent Listerine! Thought that microbes caused infections. Washed wounds
- with carbolic acid
who is Nightingale?
- sanitation as a weapon against disease. Worked during the Crimean war in
- 1850’s. Was able to greatly reduce death rate from 40% of wounded to 2%.
who is Pasteur?
- studied fermentation and determined it was caused by microorganisms. Developed
- pasteurization to prevent souring of wine
who is Knoch?
- German. identified the bacillus which caused anthrax. First microbe to be
- identified as a cause of disease
who is Rontgen?
- Discovered X rays – could see internal organs without wounds or dissection
American Red Cross
- a nursing service for poor rural areas
who is Ehrlich?
- discovered certain chemicals would damage microbes but not the human host. Used
- an arsenic compound to treat syphilis
who is Fleming?
- English discovered penicillin would kill certain bacteria staphylococci. Didn’t
- go into production until the 1940’s (WW2
Banting and Best
- insulin and used it for treating diabetes
National Tuberculosis Association
- educate public to reduce fear of disease and bring about early diagnosis. No
- effective medicine until 1945. Before that: good nourishment, fresh air and
who is Salk?
- first polio vaccine; used killed viruses died in 1995 U of Pittsburgh
who is Sabin?
- polio vaccine; used attenuated polio viruses died in 1993. U of Cincy
who is John Gibbon?
- first heart lung machine for use in surgery. Philadelphia
who is Christiaan Barnard?
- South Africa. first heart transplant. Washkansky survived the operation and lived for eighteen days. However, he succumbed to pneumonia
- induced by the immunosuppressive drugs he was taking. Next patient in 1968
- lived 19 months. One lived 12 years and one over 23 years.
what is cristae?
The inner folding of mitochondria
what is a matrix?
- inside the inner membrane is called the Matrix. This is where many of the reactions of cellular
- respiration occur.
what is Endoplasmic reticulum?
- continuous with the nuclear envelope
- ribosomes on outer surface
- Also will sequester large amounts of calcium in muscle cells – there it is
- called sarcoplasmic reticulum
- ribosomes. Involved in lipid
Formed by Golgi Complex
Contain various enzymes
what is Adaptation
- when cells are subjected to persistent, sub lethal stress
Cells become smaller
cause of atrophy:
poor endocrine stimulation
what is Disuse?
- a cast, paralysis, bed rest disuse
- atrophy. Mostly with muscle cells.
- Atrophy is reversible and when normal use returns, cells will return to
- original size.
what is Ischemia?
- : inadequate blood
- supply. Especially
- dangerous for heart and brain
what is Aging?
- affects brain cells and endocrine-dependent organs: gonads. Also heart
what is Nutrient starvation?
- intake, poor absorption or poor distribution to tissues
what is Poor endocrine stimulation?
- most tissues depend on growth stimulating hormonal
Hypothalamus and pituitary stimulate many tissues
- Ex: breasts and reproductive organs in post menopausal
what is Denervation?
- loss of
- nervous stimulation; paralysis – leads to disuse
what is HYPERTROPHY?
•Cells get larger
what is Compensatory?
- part of organ or tissue is removed or becomes inactive ex kidney removal. Other
- one will become larger.
what is HYPERPLASIA?
Increase in # of cells
Increased cell division
what is Metaplasia?
- One type of
- mature cell is replaced
- by another
- Epithelium or mesenchymal tissue
what is DYSPLASIA?
Deranged cell growth
REVERSIBLE CELL INJURY
- Once stress is removed, recover
- •Two main events:
- Na-K pumps malfunction and Na accumulates within the cell.
- pulls water into cell (osmosis) and the
- cytoplasm is diluted. Mitochondria will become swollen.
- can cause an entire organ to enlarge.
- the cells. The can be harmful because the accumulations are toxic OR because
- they take up space needed for cellular functions.
INJURY result from?
- of injury depends in part on the duration and severity of assault and in part
- on the prior condition of the cells.
- Well nourished and
- somewhat adapted cells may withstand injury better than poorly nourished or unadapted cells
Types of accumulation
•Excessive amounts of normal substances
•Accumulation of abnormal substances
•Accumulation of non-degradable substances
•Most accumulations are reversible
- these are often produced by the cells. With diabetes,
- neurons may take up too much glucose
- which is changed to SORBITOL – this pulls water into cell. Excess water
- interferes with impulse conduction.
- Pigments may accumulate – some accumulation is normal
- i.e. when we tan our skin accumulate melanin
: Lead, pigments, coal dust, silica dust
- from tattoos, and natural
- sources: bilirubin, lipofuscin (lipid rich age spot
- pigment) hemoglobin, ferritin. Melanin
- get a blue lead line along the edge of the gums
causes of cell injuries
- common type of cell injury
- : Ischemia
shortage of O2 in air
obstruction of respiratory system
drop in # of RBC’s or hemoglobin
cause of cell injuries
what are free radicals?
- radicals are atoms or group of atoms that has an unpaired electron in its outer
- orbit. They are very unstable and will enter into chain reactions and form
- unstable bonds in important molecules in the cell. Will also produce more free
- radicals. Get a cascade of reactions which produce more free radicals
TRUE OR FALSE
- Free radicals can denature proteins and inactivate
- enzymes, damage cell membranes, disrupt chromosomes.
- They are the
- byproducts of normal reactions – especially during hypoxia
TRUE OR FALS ABOUT FREE RADICALS
They are also formed by exposure to UV light and X rays.
- Toxicity of some drugs and chemicals can be attributed
- to conversion of the chemicals to free radicals.
- Recent research links them to cardiovascular disease,
- diabetes mellitus, hypertension, macular degeneration and chronic heart failure
- among others
Free Radicals can be inactivated by
antioxidants such as:
beta carotene, etc
also by enzymes
FREE RADICALS CAN BE INACTIVATED BY
- free radicals. Vitamins C and E, beta carotene, albumin are some of the
- enzymes in the body will break them down and some will spontaneously decay.
Chemical agents in cell injuries:
- Carbon tetrachloride
what is Formaldehyde?
- important chemical used widely by industry to manufacture building materials
- and numerous household products
what is Carbon Tetrachloride?
- - High exposure can cause liver, kidney, and
- central nervous system damage
types of necrosis:
- . Coagulative necrosis
- Liquefactive necrosis
- Caseous necrosis
- Fat necrosis
- Gangrenous necrosis
Gangrenous necrosis result from what?
- results from severe hypoxic injury with blockage of major arties. Common in
- lower leg and feet. Large mass of tissue is undergoing necrosis.
fat necrosis results from?
- destruction is caused when lipases (enzymes which break down lipids) break down
- triglycerides releasing fatty acids.
- Calcium, magnesium
- and sodium ions combine with fatty acids, making soaps
Caseous necrosis cause
- occurs as a result of a tuberculous pulmonary infection
Liquefactive necrosis cause?
- commonly results from ischemic injury to cells in the brain. Dead brain tissue
- is readily affected by liquefactive necrosis because
- brain cells have a lot of digestive enzymes and lipids and there is little
- connective tissue
Coagulative necrosis cause
- 1.occurs primary in the
- kidneys, heart and adrenal glands. Usually caused by severe ischemia or
- Coagulation occurs
- when proteins are in the cell are denatured
what is Apoptosis?
fallen apart.Normal replacement of worn out cells