Human Physiology 02

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NursyDaisy
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100705
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Human Physiology 02
Updated:
2011-10-12 11:47:46
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Physiology
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Organic Chemistry
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  1. What are organic molecules?
    Those containing carbon and hydrogen
  2. If two carbon atoms share one pair of electrons, they are said to have what type of bond?
    single covalent
  3. If two carbon atoms share two pairs of electrons, what type of bond are they said to have?
    double covalent
  4. What are molecules with exactly the same atoms arranged in exactly the same sequence yet differ with respect to the spatial orientation of a key functional group?
    stereoisomers
  5. What forms of stereoisomers of amino acids occur in living systems?
    L-amino acids
  6. What forms of stereoisomers of sugars occur in living systems?
    D-sugars
  7. What group of organic molecules have the general formula CH2O (CnH2nO2)?
    carbohydrates
  8. What is a synonym for simple sugar?
    monosaccharide
  9. What is a synonym for a double sugar (two monosaccharides joined together)?
    disaccharide
  10. What is formed when many monosaccharides are joined together?
    polysaccharide
  11. What is animal starch?
    glycogen
  12. What type of reaction bonds unit molecules together by remove a hydrogen from one and a hydroxyl group from another and thus forming a water molecule?
    dehydration synthesis (condensation)
  13. What type of reaction adds a hydrogen and a hydroxyl group to a molecule to split it into unit molecules?
    hydrolysis
  14. What group of organic molecules includes several types that differ in chemical structure but have the common characteristic of being insoluble in water?
    lipids
  15. What subcategory of lipids includes fats and oils and are formed by the condensation of one molecule of
    glycerol and three fatty acid molecules?
    triglycerides
  16. What molecule consists of a nonpolar hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group (COOH) on one end?
    a fatty acid molecule
  17. If within a fatty acid the carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain are joined by single covalent bonds so that each carbon can also bond with two hydrogen atoms, what adjective describes the molecule?
    saturated
  18. If within a fatty acid one or more double bonds occur between carbons within the hydrocarbon chain, what
    adjective describes the molecule?
    unsaturated
  19. What is a synonym for triglycerides?
    neutral fats
  20. What type of molecules are derived from fatty acids and includes four-carbon-long acidic molecules
    (acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid) and acetone?
    ketone bodies
  21. What condition occurs when fat is rapidly broken down and levels of ketone bodies are elevated in the blood?
    ketosis
  22. What condition occurs when there are sufficient amounts of ketone bodies in the blood to lower the pH?
    ketoacidosis
  23. What group of lipids contains a phosphate group?
    phospholipids
  24. What are spherical aggregations of phospholipids in aqueous solutions?
    micelles
  25. What are phospholipids that break surface tension in the lungs?
    surfactants
  26. What type of molecule has three six-carbon rings joined to one five-carbon ring?
    steroids
  27. What molecule is the precursor to steroid hormones produced by the gonads and adrenal cortex?
    cholesterol
  28. What sex hormones are produced by the ovaries?
    estrogen & progesterone
  29. What steroid is produced by the testes?
    testosterone
  30. What group of steroid is produced by the adrenal cortex?
    corticosteroids
  31. What molecule is formed by a fatty acid with a cyclic hydrocarbon?
    prostaglandin
  32. What type of molecule consists of long chains of amino acids?
    proteins
  33. What type of subunit molecules form proteins?
    amino acids
  34. Draw an amino acid.
    • H R O
    • N-C-C
    • H H OH
  35. How many different amino acids occur in living systems?
    20
  36. What type of bond occurs between amino acids?
    peptide bond
  37. What level of protein structure consists of the sequence of amino acids?
    primary structure
  38. What level of structure of a protein results in an alpha helix or a beta pleaded sheet?
    secondary structure
  39. What level of structure of a protein produces the complex three-dimensional structure of the molecule?
    tertiary structure
  40. What is the irreversible change of a protein due to an increase in temperature or a change in pH?
    denaturation
  41. What level of structure of a protein is formed by the bonding of a number of polypeptide chains?
    quaternary structure
  42. What type of molecule is formed by the conjugation of a protein and a carbohydrate?
    glycoprotein
  43. What type of molecule is formed by the conjugation of a protein and a lipid?
    lipoprotein
  44. List the five functional categories of proteins.
    • structural proteins
    • enzymes
    • antibodies
    • carriers
    • receptors
  45. What are the unit molecules of nucleic acids?
    nucleotides
  46. What are the two main types of nucleic acids?
    • DNA
    • RNA
  47. What are the three components of a nucleotide?
    • a five-carbon sugar
    • a nitrogenous base
    • phosphate group
  48. What type of nucleotide consists of a single ring of carbon and nitrogen?
    pyrimidine
  49. What type of nucleotide consists of two rings of carbon and nitrogen?
    purine
  50. What nucleic acid serves as the genetic code?
    DNA
  51. What is the full term for DNA?
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  52. What sugar occurs in DNA?
    deoxyribose
  53. What are the four bases found in DNA?
    • guanine and adenine (purines)
    • cytosine and thymine (pyrimidines)
  54. What molecules form the backbone of DNA?
    the sugars and phosphates
  55. If we think of DNA as a ladder, what molecules for the rungs of the ladder?
    the bases
  56. What is the general shape of DNA?
    double helix
  57. In DNA, what bases pair with what bases?
    • adenine to thymine
    • guanine to cytosine
  58. What is the full name of RNA?
    ribonucleic acid
  59. What sugar is found in RNA?
    ribose
  60. What bases are found in RNA?
    • adenine
    • guanine
    • cytosine
    • uracil
  61. How many strands make up an RNA molecule?
    one (unlike DNA which has two)
  62. What three types of RNA function in protein synthesis?
    • mRNA (messenger RNA)
    • rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
    • tRNA (transfer RNA)

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