Card Set Information

2011-09-09 11:27:55

Exam 1
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  1. What is Nutrition?
    • The study of food, including,
    • -How food nourishes our bodies
    • -How food influences our health
  2. Why is Nutrition Important?
    Nutrition contributes to wellness
  3. Wellness
    • the absense of disease
    • Physical, emotional, and spiritual health

    not an end point, continually maintain balance
  4. Critical Components of Wellness
    • Nutrition
    • Physical activity
  5. Nutrition can prevent..
    • Nutrient deficiency diseases
    • (scurvy, goiter, rickets)
  6. Diseases that are influenced by nutrition
    Heart disease, obesity, stroke, and type 2 diabetes
  7. Diseases in which nutririon plays a role..
    Osteoporosis, osteoartritis, some forms of cancer.
  8. Nutrition and Energy Balance
    • Energy in = energy out
    • Imbalance between nutrition and physical activity increased risk factor for choronic diseases.
  9. What are Nutrients?
    • The chemicals in foods that are critical to human growth and function
    • carbs, fats and oils, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water.
  10. Macronutrients
    • nutrients that are required in relatively large amounts
    • -provide energy to our bodies
    • -carbs, fats and oils, proteins
  11. Micronutrients
    • nutrients that are required in smaller amounts
    • -vitamins and minerals
  12. Kilocalorie
    amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1C
  13. Carbohydrates
    • Primary source of fuel for the body, especially for the brain
    • provide 4kcal per gram of carbs
    • -found in grains, vegetables, fruit, and legumes(beans)
  14. Fats and Oils
    • An important energy source during rest or low-intensity exercise
    • provide 9kcal per gram
    • -found in butter, margarine, vegetable oils
  15. Proteins
    • Play a major role in building nre cells and tissues
    • -supply 4kcal of energy per gram
    • but are NOT a primary source of energy
  16. Protiens are important for..
    • building new cells and tissues
    • maintaing bones
    • repairing damaged structures
    • regulating metabolism
  17. Metabolism
    • chemical process in the body, provides enerygy
    • sustains vital activities and functions
  18. Vitamins
    • compounds containing carbon that assist in regulating body processes
    • -micronutrients that do not supply energy to our bodies
  19. Fat-soluble vitamins
    • vitamins A, D, E, and K
    • -dissolves easily in fats and oils
  20. Water-soluble vitamins
    • Vitamins C and B
    • -remain dissolved in water
  21. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI's)
    • identify the optimum of a nutrient to:
    • Prevent a nutrient deficiency
    • reduce the risk of a chronic disease
  22. DRI
    consists of six values.
    • 1. Estimated Average Requierment (EAR)
    • 2. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
    • 3. Adequate Intake (AI)
    • 4. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
    • 5. Estimated Energy Requierment (EER)
    • 6. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
  23. EAR
    the average daily intake level of a nutrient that will meet the needs of half of the people in a particular category
  24. RDA
    the average daily intake level required to meet the needs of 97-98% of people in a particular category
  25. AI
    the recommended average daily intake level for a nutrient; used when the RDA is not yet established
  26. UL
    The highest average daily intake level that is not likely to have adverse effects on the health of most people.
  27. EER
    The average dietay energy intake level to maintain energy balance
  28. AMDR
    Describes the portion of the energy intake that should come from each macronutrient.
  29. Enriched
    • nutrients that are added to processed foods
    • that had been lost during processing
  30. Fortification
    add nutrients that werent otherwise in there.
  31. Ntrient Density
    Foods of the highest nutrients in exchange for the least calories
  32. Discretionary Calories
    extra calories after meeting most nutrient dense food requierments
  33. Minerals
    Our bodies require at least 100mg per day of major minerals such as calcium, phosphoros, magnesium, sodium, potasium, and chroride

    we require less than100mg per day of the trace minerals such as iron, zinc, copper, iodine, and floride
  34. Minerals
    • Substances that do not contain carbon and required for body processes
    • many different functions, energy production, fluid regulation, and bone structure