What is the volume of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle?
What is the volume of blood pumped per beat by each ventricle?
What is the beats per minute of the heart?
What is the stroke volume times the cardiac rate?
What is the average blood volume of an adult?
What is the effect of epinephrine on cardiac rate?
What is the effect of norepinephrine on cardiac rate?
What is the effect of acetylcholine on cardiac rate?
What coordinates the activity of the autonomic innervation of the heart?
the cardiac control center of the medulla oblongata
What is the general effect of the sympathetic division of the ANS on the heart?
It increases the rate and the strength of contractions.
What is the general effect of the parasympathetic division of the ANS on the heart?
It decreases the rate of contraction.
What three factors regulate the stroke volume?
total peripheral resistance
the strength of the ventricular contraction
What term refers to the proportion of end-diastolic volume that is ejected?
What is the approximate ejection fraction (%) of the heart?
What physiological law states the relationship between EDV, contraction strength, and stroke volume?
the Frank-Starling Law
According to the Frank-Starling Law an increase in what physiological factor will increase the strength of ventricular contraction?
An increase in the end-diastolic volume changes what factor within the myocardial cells and thus
increases the force of the contraction?
How does an increase in sarcomere length increase the strength of the contraction of myocardial cells?
At rest actin filaments overlap one another. As length increase actin and myosin overlap optimally.
How does the Frank-Starling Law explain how the heart can adjust to a rise in total peripheral resistance?
a rise in peripheral resistance decreases stroke volume thus increasing EDV resulting in further
stretching the ventricle and increasing the strength of the contraction
Approximately what portion of the total blood volume is contained in the veins?
What is the mean venous pressure?
2 mm HG
What is the mean arterial pressure?
100 mm Hg
What factors move blood through veins?
skeletal muscle pump, pressure differences between thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity
sympathetic nerve activity
What proportion of the bodyís water is held in the intracellular compartment?
What proportion of the bodyís water is held in the extracellular compartment?
What percentage of the extracellular fluid interstitial fluid?
What percentage of the extracellular fluid is held in the blood?
What are the opposing forcing in filtration and absorption in the capillaries?
hydrostatic pressure in the capillary and interstitial fluid and colloid osmotic pressure in the blood and interstitial fluid
What causes net filtration at the arterial end of a capillary?
high hydrostatic pressure within the capillary
What causes net absorption at the venous end of a capillary?
high osmotic pressure in the blood
What maintains the osmotic pressure of blood?
plasma proteins (albumins)
What term refers to an excessive accumulation of tissue fluid?
What are six possible causes of edema?
high arterial B/P
leakage of plasma proteins into the interstitial fluid
decreased plasma protein concentration
obstruction of lymphatic drainage
What hormone is released by the posterior pituitary in response to an increase in the osmolality of the blood?
What two factors can increase the osmolality of the blood?
excessive salt intake
What hormone is produced by the atria of the heart in response to an increase in blood volume?
atrial natriuretic peptide
What steroid hormone is secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to a decrease in blood volume and stimulates the reabsorption of salt by the kidneys?
What structures in the kidneys sense a decrease in blood volume?
What enzyme is released by the juxtaglomerular apparatus in response to low blood pressure?
What is the action of the enzyme renin?
It cleaves angiotensin I from angiotensinogen
What is the role of angiotensin I?
It is converted to angiotensin II.
How is angiotensin I converted to angiotensin II?
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) does it in the lungs.
What is the action of angiotensin II?
Vasoconstriction and the release of aldosterone
What endocrine gland secretes aldosterone?
the adrenal cortex
What is the effect of aldosterone?
increased uptake of Na+ and water in the kidneys
What is the action of atrial natriuretic hormone?
decrease release of ADH
increased NaCl and water excretion in the kidneys
What two factors decrease blood flow (increase resistance) as they increase?
length of the vessel and viscosity of the blood
What factor increases the flow of blood (decreases resistance) as it increases?
the radius of the vessel
How does blood flow to an organ change if the arteries supplying it vasodilate?
How does blood flow to an organ change if the arteries supplying it vasoconstrict?
What effect do adrenergic sympathetic fibers have on vascular smooth muscle?
What effect do cholinergic sympathetic fibers have on vascular smooth muscle?
The blood vessels of what organs are innervated by adrenergic sympathetic fibers?
digestive organs, kidneys, skin
The blood vessels of what organs are innervated by cholinergic sympathetic fibers?
In relation to the neurotransmitter released, parasympathetic fibers are always what type?
Parasympathetic fibers always have what effect on the blood vessels they innervate?
Parasympathetic innervation of blood vessels is limited to what organs?
the digestive tract
What are molecules produced by one tissue to help regulate another tissue of the same organ?
What is the effect of nitric oxide, bradykinin, and prostacyclin on smooth muscle? What effect
would this have on blood vessels?
relaxation & vasodilation
What is the effect of the paracrine regulator endothelin-1?
If blood pressure and blood flow into an organ are too low, what is the response of the arteries supplying that organ?
If blood pressure into an organ is too high, what is the response of that organ?
What type of control mechanism results from the direct response of vascular smooth muscle to changes in blood pressure?
What type of control mechanism brings about changes in blood flow in response to changes in the
chemical environment of an organ?
List four chemical changes that promote vasodilation.
decreased oxygen concentration
increased CO2 concentration
release of adenosine or K+
What type of metabolism does the myocardium use?
List three adaptations the myocardium uses to maintain its aerobic metabolism.
dense capillary beds
high numbers of mitochondria
What is the effect of norepinephrine on alpha-adrenergic receptors in blood vessels of the heart?
What is the effect of epinephrine on beta-adrenergic receptors of the blood vessels of the heart?
Vasodilation of the blood vessels of the heart results from what type of regulatory mechanism?
What effect results from sympathetic adrenergic fibers stimulating alpha-adrenergic receptors of blood vessels of skeletal muscle?
What effect results from sympathetic cholinergic fibers stimulating beta-adrenergic receptors of blood vessels in skeletal muscles?
What effect results epinephrine stimulating beta- adrenergic receptors of blood vessels of skeletal
What type of control mechanism increases blood flow into skeletal muscles during prolonged exercise?
What three changes increase the blood flow to skeletal muscles during exercise?
increased cardiac output
metabolic vasodilation in the exercising muscles
the diversion of blood away from the viscera and skin
What factors increase cardiac output during exercise?
increased cardiac rate
maintenance of EDV due to increased venous return resulting from increased skeletal muscle activity and increased respiration
increased ejection fraction
What are the responses of blood vessels within the brain to increases and decreases of B/P?
Increased B/P leads to vasoconstriction
Decreased B/P leads to vasodilation
What type of regulatory mechanism leads to changes in the blood vessels of the brain as B/P increases and decreases?
What changes occur in blood vessels in the brain as CO2 levels increase or decrease?
Increases cause vasodilation
Decreases lead to vasoconstriction
What type of control mechanism regulates blood flow in the brain in response to changes in CO2
What type of regulatory mechanism increases blood flow to regions of the brain as they become more active?
What type of mechanism controls blood flow to the skin?
extrinsic by means of the sympathetic division of the ANS
What happens to blood flow in the skin if ambient temperatures are low and body temperature is dropping?
What happens to blood flow to the skin if body temperature rises?
If increased blood flow to the skin does not sufficiently lower body temperature, what additional
measures are taken?
Sweat glands produce sweat as a coolant and bradykinin to increase vasodilation
What are the three most important factors contributing to blood pressure?
stroke volume (determined primarily by blood volume)
peripheral resistance (determined by vasocontriction or dilation)
What units are used to measure blood pressure?
mm Hg (millimeters of mercury)
What type of instrument is used to measure blood pressure?
How does the total cross-sectional area of vessels relate to blood pressure?
inversely (as cross-sectional area increases, blood pressure decreases)
What type of receptors respond to blood pressure?
Where are baroreceptors located in the body?
the aortic arch and the carotid sinuses
In relation to stimulation by a continuous stimulus, what type of receptors are baroreceptors?
What cranial nerve innervates the baroreceptor in the aortic arch?
the vagus nerve
What cranial nerve innervates the baroreceptors in the carotid sinus?
What neural centers control vasoconstriction/vasodilation?
the vasomotor control centers of the medulla oblongata
What neural control centers regulate cardiac rate?
cardiac control centers in the medulla oblongata
Motor fibers controlled by the medulla oblongata to regulate cardiac rate and vasocontriction/vasodilation travel through what nerves?
vagus nerve and sympathetic nerves and spinal nerves carrying sympathetic fibers
Which division of the ANS raises blood pressure?
Which division of the ANS lowers blood pressure?
Baroreceptors may take a few seconds to respond to the drop in blood pressure due to an individual moving from a resting position to a standing position. This can result in dizziness or even faint because the brain is not adequately perfused. What is the medical term for this drop in blood pressure?
postural (orthostatic) hypotension
What reflex maintains proper blood pressure?
the baroreceptor reflex
If blood pressure is dropping, what two hormones which effect blood volume help to increase it?
aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
If blood pressure is too high, what hormone which influences blood volume helps to lower it?
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
What is the medical term for an expiratory effort against a closed glottis?
the Valsalva's maneuver
What type of flow occurs when all parts of a fluid move in the same direction, parallel to the axis of the vessel?
What type of flow occurs when some parts of a fluid move in different diretions?
What term refers to the highest blood pressure in an artery when it equals the pressure in a blood pressure cuff and the first Korotkoff sound is produced?
What term refers to the lowest blood pressure in an artery when it equals the pressure in a blood pressure cuff and the last Korotkoff sound is produced?
What term refers to the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure within an artery?
Pulse pressure is a reflection of what other physiological factor?
What is the significance of the mean arterial pressure?
It is the pressure that drives blood through the capillaries
What formula is an approximation of mean arterial pressure?
Mean arterial pressure = diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure
What medical term means “high blood pressure”?
What type of hypertension is a result of known disease processes?
What type of hypertension is the result of complex and poorly understood processes?
Which type of hypertension is the most common?
What are two major dangers of hypertension?
The heart must work harder to overcome the increased afterload. This leads to pathological
changes in heart structure
Damage to vessels leads to increased risk of stroke.
Development of atherosclerois leads to heart disease
What is a toxemia of late pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, proteinuria, and edema?
What type of shock occurs due to low blood volume?
What type of shock results from infection?
What type of shock occurs as a result of a severe allergic reaction?
What type of shock results from damage to the nervous system?
What type of shock results from heart failure?
What is heart failure in which the heart is unable to maintain adequate circulation of blood in the tissues of the body or to pump out the venous blood returned to it by the venous circulation?