Epithelial Tissue

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Author:
trsmartblonde
ID:
100709
Filename:
Epithelial Tissue
Updated:
2011-09-09 14:45:18
Tags:
anatomy epithelial tissue
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Description:
Different types and functions of epithelial tissue in our bodies
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  1. Types of Tissues
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Neural
  2. Epithelial tissue functions
    • Protection - lines body surfaces and cavities, and covers organs
    • Absorption - special cells able to absorb nutrient molecules
    • Secretion - cells in exocrine and endocrine glands able to produce and secrete materials
  3. Epithelial tissue characteristics
    • One surface always exposed to fluid or air
    • Totally cellular
    • No blood vessels, this tissue is avascular
    • Cells rest on a basement membrane for attachment to underlying connective tissue
  4. Apical
    Exposed to air
  5. Epithelial classification
    • Number of layers of cells (simple, stratified, pseudostratified)
    • Shape of cells (squamous, cuboidal, columnar)
  6. Simple (epithelial tissue)
    Single layer of cells resting on a basement membrane
  7. Stratified
    Two or more layers with deepest layer resting on a basement membrane
  8. Pseudostratified
    Appears multiple but all cells rest on the basement membrane
  9. Squamous
    Flattened cells (squishy footballs with squished nucleus)
  10. Cuboidal
    As tall as they are wide (cubes, with circular nucleus)
  11. Columnar
    Taller than they are wide (columns with taller nucleus)
  12. Simple squamous epithelium
    • composed of one layer of flat cells
    • needed in places we need thin walls
  13. Simple squamous epithelium locations
    • Alveoli of lungs (helps for easy breathing)
    • Endothelium (forms innermost lining of blood vessels and heart)
    • Mesothelium (superficial later of cells in serous membranes lining ventral body cavity)
    • Pleural membrane (surrounds lungs)
    • Pericardial membrane (surrounds heart)
    • Peritoneal membrane (surrounds abdominopelvic organs)
    • Inner lining of vessels
  14. Simple cuboidal epithelium
    • composed of one layer of cubed shaped cells
    • usually in general tubing
    • Found in walls of kidney tubules (most common), surface of ovaries, and ducts of glands
  15. Simple columnar epithelium
    • composed of one layer of columnar shaped cells
    • contains goblet cells
    • lines lots of gut organs, gall bladder, small intestine, and gut from stomach to rectum
  16. Goblet cells
    • unicellular
    • secretes mucus to help move stuff through
  17. Stratified squamous epithelium
    • composed of numerous layers of flattened shaped cells (lots of squishy footballs!)
    • found in epidermal layer of skin, lining of mouth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, anus, vagina, and any areas subject to abrasion
  18. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells
    • single layer of tall and short cells with nuclei appearing at two levels, but actually the basal surface of all cells rest on basement membrane (falsely-layered)
    • goblet cells interspersed amongst epithelial cells and function to secrete mucus
    • tallest cells have cilia on apical surface
    • only ex is lining of the respiratory tract - in bronchioles and trachea (respiratory type epithelium)
    • every cell will touch basement membrane, but not all will necessarily touch apical surface
  19. Transitional epithelium
    • appearance of tissues changes upon stretch and recoil of organ as cells slide to accommodate change
    • stratified epithelium lining distensible (stretchable) organs such as urinary bladder and ureters
    • always changing
  20. Glandular epithelium
    • epithelial cells capable of producing and secreting a specific substance
    • may be unicellular (goblet cell) or multicellular
    • develops as an invagination from an epithelial surface
  21. Exocrine glands
    • gland is connected to an epithelial surface by a duct
    • multicellular exocrine glands have two regions: secretory portion and duct portion
  22. Secretory portion (of glands)
    • made of glandular cells that produce material
    • are either tubular or alveolar/acinar
    • Ex: salivary glands, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, mammary glands
  23. Tubular
    straight
  24. Alveolar / acinar
    bulbous
  25. Duct portion (of glands)
    • lined with ductal cells that channels secreted materials
    • either simple or compound
  26. Simple glands
    Continuous, no branching
  27. Compound glands
    displays some degree of branching
  28. Endocrine glands
    • glandular cells that have no duct (connection) to an epithelial surface
    • cellular products are secreted directly into blood
    • Ex: pituitary gland, suprarenal gland, thyroid gland

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