Human Physiology 01

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NursyDaisy
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100710
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Human Physiology 01
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2011-10-12 11:51:37
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Human Physiology
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Introduction
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  1. What is physiology?
    The study of how cells, tissues, organs, systems, and organisms function
  2. What is emphasized in physiology?
    Cause-and-effect sequences
  3. What is pathophysiology?
    The study of how physiology is altered in disease and injury
  4. What is comparative physiology?
    The comparison of physiological processes in various organisms such as invertebrates and vertebrates
  5. What is plant physiology?
    The study of the physiology of plants
  6. Science is a process. What process is used?
    The scientific method
  7. Although there are many techniques involved in applying the scientific method, all share what three attributes?
    • Confidence that the natural world is ultimately explainable.
    • Honestly conducted and communicated research and results.
    • Humility among scientists
  8. Within science there is a base of knowledge. What are the two general categories within this base?
    • universal
    • personal
  9. Within science what is a testable prediction?
    a hypothesis
  10. What is the key characteristic of a hypothesis within science?
    testable
  11. What is the key characteristic of the data used within science?
    it is reproducible
  12. How are the results of scientific research formally communicated?
    within peer-reviewed journals
  13. What are scientific theories?
    Structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts
  14. What is the maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment within an organism through dynamic means?
    homeostasis
  15. What type of mechanisms most commonly helps to maintain the internal environment of an organism?
    a negative feedback loop
  16. A factor in homeostasis is maintained around what general constant?
    set point
  17. What component of a negative feedback loop detects changes in a factor in homeostasis?
    a sensor
  18. Within negative feedback loops sensors relay information to what part of a loop?
    integrating center
  19. Within a negative feedback loop what component is immediately responsible for affecting the factor undergoing a change?
    an effector
  20. What adjective describes effectors with opposite impacts on a physiological factor?
    antagonistic
  21. What adjective means of, relating to, or involving the measurement of quantity or amount?
    quantitative
  22. What type of mechanism amplifies the change in a physiological factor?
    a positive feedback mechanism
  23. What type of mechanism is built into the structure which it effects?
    an intrinsic mechanism
  24. What type of mechanism is outside of the structure it effects?
    an extrinsic mechanism
  25. What regulatory system within the body secretes hormones?
    the endocrine system
  26. What regulatory mechanism within the body produces electrochemical impulses?
    the nervous system
  27. List the four primary tissue types.
    • epithelium
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nervous
  28. What are the three types of muscle tissue?
    • skeletal
    • smooth
    • cardiac
  29. What primary tissue type is specialized for contraction?
    muscle
  30. What type of muscle is non-striated?
    smooth
  31. What type of muscle is striated and branched?
    cardiac
  32. What type of muscle is striated and multinucleated?
    skeletal
  33. Within nervous tissue, what type of cells generate and conduct impulses?
    neurons
  34. Within nervous tissue, what type of cells support and maintain neurons?
    glial cells
  35. What part of a neuron holds the nucleus?
    the cell body
  36. What part of a neuron receives input from other cells?
    dendrites
  37. What part of a neuron conducts impulses away from the cell body?
    the axon
  38. What primary tissue type acts as a covering or lining of the bodyís surface and cavities and also forms many of the body's glands?
    epithelium
  39. What type of epithelium acts as a lining or covering for the body's cavities and surface?
    membranous
  40. Glands consist of what type of epithelium?
    glandular
  41. What type of glands secrete their product onto an epithelial surface?
    exocrine
  42. What type of glands secrete their product directly into the blood?
    endocrine
  43. What two factors are used to classify membranous epithelium?
    stratification and shape
  44. What adjective describes flat epithelial cells?
    squamous
  45. What adjective describes cube-shaped epithelial cells?
    cuboidal
  46. What adjective describes epithelial cells that are longer than they are wide?
    columnar
  47. What adjective describes epithelium that consists of a single layer of cells?
    simple
  48. What adjective describes epithelium that consists of several layers of cells?
    stratified
  49. What type of membranous epithelium is specialized for protection?
    stratified
  50. What type of membranous epithelium is specialized for the movement of substances across them?
    simple
  51. What unicellular glands produce muscus?
    goblet cells
  52. What protein is found in epithelium exposed to the outside of the body?
    keratin
  53. What term refers to membranous epithelium lacking keratin?
    nonkeratinized
  54. Structures that join membranous epithelium tightly together are collectively known as what?
    junctional complexes
  55. What is the layer of proteins and polysaccharides that attach membranous epithelium to the underlying connective tissues?
    the basement membrane
  56. What primary tissue type supports other tissues both physically and physiologically and also protects and binds other tissues?
    connective
  57. What are the three principle types of connective tissue?
    • Connective tissue proper
    • Supporting connective tissue
    • Fluid connective tissue
  58. What are the two broad categories of connective tissue proper?
    • Loose connective tissue
    • Dense connective tissue
  59. What type of loose connective tissue surrounds nerves, blood vessels, and individual muscle cells?
    areolar connective tissue
  60. This type of tissue forms shiny layers of binding tissue commonly known as what?
    fascia
  61. What type of loose connective tissue is commonly known as fat?
    adipose connective tissue
  62. What type of connective tissue forms a meshwork that acts as a structural framework for organs such as the spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes?
    reticular connective tissue
  63. What are the three types of dense connective tissue?
    • Dense regular connective tissue
    • Dense irregular connective tissue
    • Elastic connective tissue
  64. What type of dense connective tissue is composed of densely packed, parallel collagen fibers?
    Dense regular connective tissue
  65. Where is dense regular connective tissue found?
    tendons & ligaments
  66. What type of dense connective tissue is composed of collagen fibers extending in all directions?
    Dense irregular connective tissue
  67. Where is dense irregular connective tissue found?
    • Deep portion of the dermis
    • Perichondrium
    • Periosteum
    • Fibrous capsules around organs
  68. What type of dense connective tissue contains elastic tissue?
    Elastic connective tissue
  69. What are the two types of supporting connective tissue?
    Cartilage & Bone
  70. Which of the two types of supporting connective tissue is more flexible and found where the body needs support and must withstand deformation?
    Cartilage
  71. What type of connective tissue is composed of 1/3 organic components and 2/3 calcium salts?
    Bone
  72. Which type of bone forms a latticework inside of individual bones?
    Cancellous (spongy) bone
  73. There are two forms of bone. Which is solid and forms the outer shell of an individual bone?
    Cortical (compact) bone
  74. What is the fluid connective tissue?
    Blood
  75. What are anatomical structures composed of at least two of the primary tissue types and performing specific functions?
    organs
  76. What is the outer layer of the skin?
    epidermis
  77. What is the deep layer of the skin?
    dermis
  78. What tissue layer lies just deep to the skin?
    subcutaneous layer
  79. What are undifferentiated cells that have the potential to develop into a variety of tissue types?
    stem cells
  80. What adjective describes cells that can produce all the different specialized cells in the body?
    totipotent
  81. What adjective describes the ability of adult stem cells to form a variety of related cell types?
    multipotent
  82. What adjective describes the ability of embryonic stem cell to form unrelated cell types?
    pluripotent
  83. What level of organization deals with organs working together to achieve a common function?
    System level
  84. What are the two main aqueous compartments within the body?
    • intracellular
    • extracellular
  85. What are the two subdivisions of the extracellular compartment?
    blood & tissue (interstitial) fluid
  86. What are the smallest units of chemical element?
    atoms
  87. What is the center of an atom?
    the nucleus
  88. Within the nucleus of an atom, what the positive particles?
    protons
  89. Within the nucleus of an atom, what the particle which do not carry a charge?
    neutrons
  90. What is the number of protons and neutrons within the nucleus of an atom?
    the mass number
  91. What is the number of protons within an atom?
    the atomic number
  92. What are the negatively charged particles within an atom?
    electrons
  93. Where do electrons occur within an atom?
    orbitals
  94. What are atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons?
    isotopes
  95. What are isotopes which are unstable and decay to different isotopes or elements?
    radioactive isotopes
  96. What are the interactions between atoms which form molecules?
    chemical bonds
  97. Within what type of chemical bonds are electrons shared between atoms?
    covalent
  98. Within what type of covalent bonds are electrons shared equally?
    nonpolar
  99. Within what type of covalent bonds are atoms shared unequally?
    polar
  100. Within what type of chemical bond are electrons completely transferred from one atom to another?
    ionic
  101. What are atoms that have completely lost or gained electrons?
    ions
  102. What are positively charged ions?
    cations
  103. What are negatively charged ions?
    anions
  104. What adjective describes molecules that are attacked to water?
    hydrophilic
  105. What adjective describes molecules that are repelled by water?
    hydrophobic
  106. Within what type of bond is a partially positive hydrogen atom attracted to a partially negative atom?
    hydrogen
  107. What type of chemical bond occurs within a water molecule?
    polar covalent
  108. What type of chemical bond occurs between water molecules?
    hydrogen
  109. What is a substance that releases hydrogen ions into solution?
    an acid
  110. What is a substance that releases or increase hydroxyl ions in solution?
    a base
  111. What adjective describe a solution that has a higher concentration of hydrogen ions than water?
    acidic
  112. What adjective describe a solution that has a lower concentration of hydrogen ions than water?
    basic or alkaline
  113. What is a scale that represents the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution?
    pH
  114. What is the formula for pH?
    the log of one over the concentration of hydrogen ions (be able to write it mathematically)
  115. What range of pH is acidic?
    1-7
  116. What pH is neutral?
    7
  117. What range of pH is basic?
    7-14
  118. What is a system of molecules and ions that acts to prevent a change in pH?
    a buffer
  119. What is the pH of blood?
    7.35-7.45
  120. What condition occurs if the pH of the blood falls below 7.35?
    acidosis
  121. What condition occurs if the pH of the blood rises above 7.45?
    alkalosis

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