Human Physiology 03
Card Set Information
Human Physiology 03
Cell Structure and Genetic Control
What is the basic structural and functional unit of life?
Cells come in many sizes and shapes. Why?
form follows function
What structure surrounds the cell and gives it form and separates it from external environment?
What portion of the cell lies between the cell membrane and the nucleus?
What is the fluid portion of the cytoplasm?
What are the subcellular structures in the cytoplasm that perform specific functions?
What structure within the cell contains the genetic material and acts as the control center for the cell?
What are the two primary components of all the cell's membranes?
phospholipids and proteins
What are proteins in the cell membrane that are only partially embedded on one side of the membrane?
What are proteins embedded in the cell membrane that span the membrane from one side to the other?
What term describes the constantly moving and changing characteristic of the cell membrane?
Through what process may objects outside of a cell be ingested or eaten as false feet (pseudopods) extend around them from the cell?
Through what process are objects brought into the cell by the cell membrane forming furrows inward?
What form of endocytosis is nonspecific?
What process of endocytosis is specific to only certain molecules?
Through what process are cellular products secreted into the extracellular environment?
What cellular organelle is hair-like and beats to move objects?
What whip-like organelle propels a sperm?
What immobile, hair-like structures on some cells increase surface area?
What lattice work of microfilaments and microtubules give shape to a cell and allow it to change shape?
What are aggregations of stored chemicals within some cells?
What organelle functions as the digestive system of the cell?
What membrane-enclosed organelle contains several specific enzymes that promote oxidative reactions?
What organelle is the power-house of the cell?
What is the inner, fluid portion of a mitochondrion?
What are shelves of a mitochondrion?
Other than the nucleus, what organelle contains DNA?
What organelles are particles that act as the protein-factories of the cell?
What extensive membranous organelle often appears ribbon-like within the cytoplasm?
What extensive ribbon-like organelle is covered with ribosomes?
rough endoplasmic reticulum
What extensive ribbon-like organelle lacks ribosomes and has a wide variety of functions such as detoxification or calcium storage?
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
What organelle functions as the packaging system of the cell?
Golgi apparatus (complex)
What membrane encloses the nucleus?
nuclear membrane (envelope)
What are openings in the nuclear membrane?
What process involves the synthesis of mRNA and thus the copying of the message on DNA?
What process involves the synthesis of protein?
What are all of the genes of an individual or species?
What are regions of DNA that code for polypeptides?
What are all the proteins produced by the genome?
The DNA within a cell nucleus is combined with protein to form what threadlike material that makes up chromosomes?
What is the copying of information from DNA to mRNA?
List the four nitrogenous bases in DNA and note how they pair with one another.
List the four nitrogenous bases found in DNA and note how they pair with the bases in RNA.
What type of RNA is formed using DNA as a template?
precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA)
What type of RNA results from editing in the nucleus?
messenger RNA (mRNA)
What type of RNA functions to bring mRNA and tRNA together?
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
What type of RNA carries amino acids to ribosomes?
transfer RNA (tRNA)
What are regions of noncoding DNA within a gene?
What are coding regions of DNA within a gene?
The human proteome is over 100,000 proteins. The human genome contains about 25,000 genes. What process is largely responsible for producing so many proteins from so few genes?
What process prevents specific RNA molecules from being translated?
RNA interference or silencing
What two types of RNA may take part in RNA interference?
short interfering RNA (siRNA)
What is the process of forming proteins from mRNA in the cytoplasm?
How many bases in DNA code for a single amino acid?
Three bases on DNA which code for a single amino acid are referred to as what?
Three bases on mRNA which code for a single amino acid are referred to as what?
The three bases on tRNA which are complements to three bases on mRNA are referred to as what?
What proteins help a polypeptide chain fold into its correct tertiary structure as it emerges from a ribosome?
Because DNA replication involves the formation of one new strand pairing with one original strand, the process referred to as what?
The cell cycle has two main parts. In which of these is the resting?
The cell cycle has two main parts. In which of these is the cell dividing to produce two identical daughter cells?
In what portion of interphase is DNA replicated?
What portion of interphase immediately follows mitosis?
What portion of interphase immediately proceeds mitosis?
What are genes that contribute to cancer called?
What are normal genes that can mutate into genes that contribute to cancer?
What type of genes inhibit the development of cancer?
What is death of a portion of tissue differentially affected by local injury (as loss of blood supply, corrosion, burning, or the local lesion of a disease)?
What is programmed cell death?
What is cell division resulting in two identical daughter cells?
What are the functions of mitosis?
What is cell division that results in unique, haploid daughter cells?
Where in the body does meiosis occur?
What are the functions of meiosis?
to maintain the correct number of chromosome at conception
to produce variation
How is variation produced during meiosis?
independent assortment of chromosomes