Human Physiology 03

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NursyDaisy
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100712
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Human Physiology 03
Updated:
2011-10-12 11:44:22
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Human Physiology
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Cell Structure and Genetic Control
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  1. What is the basic structural and functional unit of life?
    the cell
  2. Cells come in many sizes and shapes. Why?
    form follows function
  3. What structure surrounds the cell and gives it form and separates it from external environment?
    plasma membrane
  4. What portion of the cell lies between the cell membrane and the nucleus?
    cytoplasm
  5. What is the fluid portion of the cytoplasm?
    cytosol
  6. What are the subcellular structures in the cytoplasm that perform specific functions?
    organelles
  7. What structure within the cell contains the genetic material and acts as the control center for the cell?
    nucleus
  8. What are the two primary components of all the cell's membranes?
    phospholipids and proteins
  9. What are proteins in the cell membrane that are only partially embedded on one side of the membrane?
    peripheral proteins
  10. What are proteins embedded in the cell membrane that span the membrane from one side to the other?
    integral proteins
  11. What term describes the constantly moving and changing characteristic of the cell membrane?
    fluid-mosaic model
  12. Through what process may objects outside of a cell be ingested or eaten as false feet (pseudopods) extend around them from the cell?
    phagocytosis
  13. Through what process are objects brought into the cell by the cell membrane forming furrows inward?
    endocytosis
  14. What form of endocytosis is nonspecific?
    pinocytosis
  15. What process of endocytosis is specific to only certain molecules?
    receptor-mediated endocytosis
  16. Through what process are cellular products secreted into the extracellular environment?
    exocytosis
  17. What cellular organelle is hair-like and beats to move objects?
    cilia
  18. What whip-like organelle propels a sperm?
    flagellum
  19. What immobile, hair-like structures on some cells increase surface area?
    microvilli
  20. What lattice work of microfilaments and microtubules give shape to a cell and allow it to change shape?
    cytoskeleton
  21. What are aggregations of stored chemicals within some cells?
    inclusions
  22. What organelle functions as the digestive system of the cell?
    lysosome
  23. What membrane-enclosed organelle contains several specific enzymes that promote oxidative reactions?
    peroxisomes
  24. What organelle is the power-house of the cell?
    mitochondrion
  25. What is the inner, fluid portion of a mitochondrion?
    the matrix
  26. What are shelves of a mitochondrion?
    cristae
  27. Other than the nucleus, what organelle contains DNA?
    mitochondrion
  28. What organelles are particles that act as the protein-factories of the cell?
    ribosomes
  29. What extensive membranous organelle often appears ribbon-like within the cytoplasm?
    endoplasmic reticulum
  30. What extensive ribbon-like organelle is covered with ribosomes?
    rough endoplasmic reticulum
  31. What extensive ribbon-like organelle lacks ribosomes and has a wide variety of functions such as detoxification or calcium storage?
    smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  32. What organelle functions as the packaging system of the cell?
    Golgi apparatus (complex)
  33. What membrane encloses the nucleus?
    nuclear membrane (envelope)
  34. What are openings in the nuclear membrane?
    nuclear pores
  35. What process involves the synthesis of mRNA and thus the copying of the message on DNA?
    transcription
  36. What process involves the synthesis of protein?
    translation
  37. What are all of the genes of an individual or species?
    genome
  38. What are regions of DNA that code for polypeptides?
    genes
  39. What are all the proteins produced by the genome?
    proteome
  40. The DNA within a cell nucleus is combined with protein to form what threadlike material that makes up chromosomes?
    chromatin
  41. What is the copying of information from DNA to mRNA?
    transcription
  42. List the four nitrogenous bases in DNA and note how they pair with one another.
    • adenine-thymine (A-T)
    • guanine-cytosine (G-C)
  43. List the four nitrogenous bases found in DNA and note how they pair with the bases in RNA.
    • DNA-RNA
    • adenine-uracil
    • guanine-cytosine
    • thymine-adenine
    • cytosine-guanine
  44. What type of RNA is formed using DNA as a template?
    precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA)
  45. What type of RNA results from editing in the nucleus?
    messenger RNA (mRNA)
  46. What type of RNA functions to bring mRNA and tRNA together?
    ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  47. What type of RNA carries amino acids to ribosomes?
    transfer RNA (tRNA)
  48. What are regions of noncoding DNA within a gene?
    introns
  49. What are coding regions of DNA within a gene?
    exons
  50. The human proteome is over 100,000 proteins. The human genome contains about 25,000 genes. What process is largely responsible for producing so many proteins from so few genes?
    alternative splicing
  51. What process prevents specific RNA molecules from being translated?
    RNA interference or silencing
  52. What two types of RNA may take part in RNA interference?
    • short interfering RNA (siRNA)
    • microRNA (miRNA)
  53. What is the process of forming proteins from mRNA in the cytoplasm?
    genetic translation
  54. How many bases in DNA code for a single amino acid?
    3
  55. Three bases on DNA which code for a single amino acid are referred to as what?
    a triplet
  56. Three bases on mRNA which code for a single amino acid are referred to as what?
    a codon
  57. The three bases on tRNA which are complements to three bases on mRNA are referred to as what?
    an anticodon
  58. What proteins help a polypeptide chain fold into its correct tertiary structure as it emerges from a ribosome?
    chaperones
  59. Because DNA replication involves the formation of one new strand pairing with one original strand, the process referred to as what?
    semiconservative
  60. The cell cycle has two main parts. In which of these is the resting?
    interphase
  61. The cell cycle has two main parts. In which of these is the cell dividing to produce two identical daughter cells?
    mitotic phase
  62. In what portion of interphase is DNA replicated?
    S phase
  63. What portion of interphase immediately follows mitosis?
    G1
  64. What portion of interphase immediately proceeds mitosis?
    G2
  65. What are genes that contribute to cancer called?
    oncogenes
  66. What are normal genes that can mutate into genes that contribute to cancer?
    proto-oncogenes
  67. What type of genes inhibit the development of cancer?
    tumor suppressor-genes
  68. What is death of a portion of tissue differentially affected by local injury (as loss of blood supply, corrosion, burning, or the local lesion of a disease)?
    necrosis
  69. What is programmed cell death?
    apoptosis
  70. What is cell division resulting in two identical daughter cells?
    mitosis
  71. What are the functions of mitosis?
    • growth
    • cell replacement
    • wound healing
  72. What is cell division that results in unique, haploid daughter cells?
    meiosis
  73. Where in the body does meiosis occur?
    the gonads
  74. What are the functions of meiosis?
    • to maintain the correct number of chromosome at conception
    • to produce variation
  75. How is variation produced during meiosis?
    • independent assortment of chromosomes
    • crossing over

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