Human Physiology 05

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Human Physiology 05
2011-10-12 11:32:54
Human Physiology

Cellular Respiration and Metabolism
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  1. What are all the reactions in the body that involve energy transformation?
  2. What are the two categories of metabolism?
    anabolism and catabolism
  3. What are reactions that release energy, usually by the breakdown of larger organic molecules into smaller
  4. What are reactions that require the input of energy and include the synthesis of large energy-storage molecules such as glycogen, fat, and protein?
  5. What is the process in which energy from food substances is partially captured in ATP?
    cellular respiration
  6. What component of cellular respiration uses oxygen as the final electron acceptor?
    aerobic respiration
  7. What component of cellular respiration does not use oxygen as the final electron acceptor?
    anaerobic respiration
  8. What are the two sources of blood glucose?
    • the GI tract
    • the liver
  9. What metabolic pathway occurs in the cytoplasm and begins the breakdown of glucose in order to package the energy within glucose in ATP?
  10. Where does glycolysis occur within the cell?
    the cytoplasm
  11. Glycolysis results in the conversion of glucose to what molecules?
    two pyruvic acid molecules
  12. How many carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms occur in glucose?
  13. How many atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen occur in a molecule of pyruvic acid?
  14. What becomes of the two hydrogens lost in the conversion of a molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvic acid?
    NAD captures them thus becoming NADH + H+
  15. Is glycolysis exergonic or endergonic?
  16. How is ATP used in glycolysis?
    ATP is used to phosphorylate glucose
  17. What is the net gain of ATP from glycolysis?
  18. Other than glucose, what molecule must occur in adequate amounts in order that glycolysis may continue?
  19. What metabolic pathway allows glycolysis to continue when oxygen is not available in sufficient amounts for aerobic metabolism to occur?
    anaerobic metabolism or lactic acid fermentation
  20. In what form is glucose stored in cells?
  21. What metabolic process produces glycogen?
  22. What metabolic process produces glucose-6-phosphate from glycogen?
  23. What is the only organ in the body with the ability to release free glucose from the glycogen?
    the liver
  24. What is the process in which noncarbohydrate molecules such as lactic acid and amino acids are converted to glucose?
  25. What is the exchange of lactic from muscles to the liver and the glucose formed through gluconeogenesis in the liver to muscles?
    the Cori cycle
  26. What metabolic pathway converts pyruvic acid into Acetyl CoA?
    the transition reaction
  27. Where in the cell does the transition reaction take place?
    the mitochondria
  28. What are the productions of the transition reaction?
    for each molecule of pyruvic acid an NADH + H+ and a molecule of CO2 and a molecule of Acetyl CoA are formed
  29. What are synonyms for the Krebs Cycle?
    the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
  30. What waste product is given off by the Krebs cycle?
    two molecules of CO2
  31. What products produced by the Krebs cycle may be used as immediate sources of energy or may be used to create such sources?
    one ATP, 3 NADH + H+, 1 FADH2
  32. Where in the cell does the Krebs cycle take place?
    the matrices of the mitochondria
  33. What metabolic pathway is responsible for producing the most ATP?
    the electron transport system
  34. What process takes place as ATP is formed through the coupling of the electron-transport system with the
    phosphorylation of ADP?
    oxidative phosphorylation
  35. What becomes of the oxygen (O2) that is breathed in?
    It functions as the final electron receptor in the electron transport system.
  36. Where in the cell is the electron transport system located?
    the cristae of the mitochondria
  37. What molecule is used to build fat from glucose? This molecule is also the first to enter the Krebs cycle after glycolysis.
    Acetyl CoA
  38. What is the formation of fat?
  39. How many kilocalories are in one gram of fat?
  40. How many kilocalories are in one gram of carbohydrate or protein?
  41. In what process is fat broken down?
  42. What becomes of glycerol left from the break down of triclycerides?
    The liver converts it to glucose through gluconeogenesis
  43. In what process are two-carbon acetic acid molecules removed from the acid end of a fatty acid chain and converted to Acetyl CoA to enter the Krebs cycle?
  44. What tissue uses mitochrondia to produce heat?
    brown fat
  45. In what stage of life is brown fat more common?
    the neonatal stage
  46. What substances are formed when the rate of lipolysis exceeds the rate of fatty acid utilization and the liver has sufficient amounts of ATP?
    ketone bodies
  47. What conditions might lead to ketosis?
    • starvation
    • dieting
    • diabetes mellitis
  48. What condition occurs when the amount of nitrogen ingested in amino acids exceeds the amount excreted?
    positive nitrogen balance
  49. What condition occurs when the amount of nitrogen being excreted exceeds the amount ingested?
    negative nitrogen balance
  50. What condition occurs when the amount of nitrogen ingested equals the amount excreted?
    nitrogen balance
  51. How many different amino acids are there?
  52. What are amino acids which cannot be produced by the body and must be ingested?
    essential amino acids
  53. What type of amino acid may be produced by the body given sufficient amounts of carbohydrates and essential amino acids?
  54. What are substances that may be converted to amino acids by the addition of an amine group?
    keto acids
  55. What substances collectively known as keto acids?
    pyruvic acid and the Krebs cycle acids
  56. In what type of reaction is the amine group transferred from one amino acid to form another?
  57. What process removes the amine group from an amino acid which can then be transformed to pyruvic acid or one of the Krebs cycle acids to be respired for energy, converted to fat, or converted to glucose?
    oxidation deamination
  58. What molecules in the blood serve as energy sources for different organs?
    • glucose
    • fatty acids
    • ketone bodies
    • lactic acid
  59. What is the main source of energy for the brain?