______ _____ (1868-1963) founded the second department of sociology in the U.S. at Atlantla University.
W.E.B. Du Bois
____ ___ ____ was one of the first scholars to note that a dual heritage creates conflict people of color. He called this duality ______-___________-the identity conflict of being both black and American.
W.E.B. Du Bois
___ ____ pointed out that even though people in America espouse such values as democracy, freedom and equality, they also accept racism and group discrimination.
______- A set of logicaly interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain, and occasionally predict social events.
___________ and overall approach to or viewpoint on some subject.
The three major theoretical perspectives that are predominant in US sociology: __________, _______< and _________ ____________.
Other perspective such as ______________ have emerged and gained acceptance among some social thinkers more recently.
___________ perspectives are based on the assumption that society is a stable, orderly system.
Acording to the functionalist perspectives, society is a stable system that is characterized by _________ _________-where the majority of members share common beliefs, and behavioral expectations.
According to the __________ perspective, a society is composed of interrelated parts, each of which serves a function and ideally contributes to the overall stability of the society.
______ _______ stressed that all societies must provide for meeting social needs in order to survive.
Functionalism was refined further by _____ _ _____, who distinguished between manifest and latent functions of social institutions.
Robert K Merton
_______ ______ are intended or overtly recognized by the participants in a social unit.
_______ _______ are unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants.
_________ are the undesirable consequences of any element of a society.
_______ __________ - the sociological approach that views groups in society as engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources.
______ _____ & _____ contributed significantly to the _____ perpective by focusing on the inevitability of clashes between social groups.
_______ defined power as the the ability of a person within relationship to carry out his or her own will despite resistance from others.
______ defined _____ as a positive or negative social estimation of honor.
According to _ ____ ___, the power elite are a small clique composed of top corporate, political, and military officials.
C. Wright MIlls
Within the conflict theory, the ____ ____ approach views the power struggle between the classes as inevitable and as a prime source of social change.
A third branch of the conflict theory is the ______ approach which directs attention to womens experiencesand the importance of gender as an element of the social structure.
The _______ approach is based on the belief that "women and men are equal and should be equally valued as well as have equal rights"
According to feminist theorists we live in a _________, a system in which men dominate women and in which thingsa that are considered to be male or masculine are more highly valued than those that are considered to be female or feminine.
__________ _______ - an approach that examines whole societies, large scale structures, and social systems.
___________ ______- sociological theory and research that focus on small groups rather than on large scale social structures.
________ ___________ __________- the sociological approach that views society as the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups.
symbolic interactionist perspectives
Theorist that use the ______ _______ perspective focus on the process of _________-defined as immediate reciprocally oriented communications between two or more people- and the part that symbols play in giving meaning to human communication.
A ______ is anything that meaningfully represents something else.
________ _________ occurs when people communicate through the use of symbols.
_________ __________ occurs in a variety of forms, including facial gestures, posture, tone of voice, and other symbolic gestures (such as handshaking or fist clenching).
Social analysts applying a symbolic interactionist framework to the study of suicide would focus on a ______-_______ ________ of the peoples face to face interactions and the roles they played in society.
micro level analysis
__________ _____________ - the sociological approach that attempts top explain social life in modern societies that are characterized by postindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications.
___________ theories tend to emphasize the fragmented nature of contemporary society brought about by constant change, a situation that leads to feelings of ambivalence among individuals becuase they are uncertain about which course of action they should atke and because there is no one present to help them figure this out.
Functionalism emphasizes -_____ ________ and ______
Conflict approaches focus primary on _____ ______ and _____
Symbolic interactionism primarily examines ______ _______ and shared meanings in ________ _____
____-__________ challenges all of the other perspectives and questions current belief systems.
social cohesion, order
social tension, change
people's interactions, everyday life
_________ ______ - sociological research methods that are based on the goal of scientific objectivity and that focus on data that can be measured numerically.
The relationship between theory and research has been referred to as a ________ _____.
__________ _______ typically emphasizes complex statistical techniques.
Most sociological studies on suicide have used ____________ research.
With qualitative research, interperative descriptions (_____), rather than statistics (_______) are used to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships.
The conventional research method focus on _________ research.
__________- a statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables.
_______- in sociological research, any concept with measurable traits or characteristics that can change or vary from one person, time, situation, or society to another.
__________ _______- in an experiment, the variable assumed to be the cause of the relationship between variables
_________ _______- in an experiment, the variable assumed to be caused by the independent variable
_______-in sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure
____________- in sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrumen yields consistent results when applied to different individuals at one time or to the same individuals over time
The most fundamental relationship in a ________is between the dependent variable and one or more independant variables
A ___ __ _______ is what or whom is being studied.
unit of analysis
________ is the process through which dtata are organized so that comparisons can be made and conclusions drawn.
_____ ______ occurs among people who are isolated from any social group.
_______ _____ occurs among individuals who are excessively integrated into society (example,military leaders who kill themselves after defeat in battle)
_______ suicide results from a lack of social regulation.
________ suicide results from excessive regulation and oppressive discipline.