Connective Tissue

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Author:
trsmartblonde
ID:
100736
Filename:
Connective Tissue
Updated:
2011-09-09 15:51:20
Tags:
connective tissue anatomy
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Description:
Anatomy Connective Tissue
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  1. Connective Tissue
    holds structures together; underlying framework
  2. Types of connective tissue
    • connective tissue proper (loose and dense)
    • supporting connective tissue (cartilage and bone)
    • fluid type connective tissue (blood)
  3. Connective tissue proper
    • holds/fastens structures together and provides either flexible or inflexible rigid support
    • cell types include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mesenchymal cells, melanocytes, mast cells, chondrocytes, and osteocytes
    • *(AFCMMMOM - Another Frikken Chem Minor Means More Organic Matter)
  4. fibroblasts
    • makes collagen, elastic and reticular fibers
    • *fibro makes fiber
  5. adipocytes
    "fat" cells
  6. macrophages
    immune cells
  7. mesenchymal cells
    embryonic stem cells still capable of differentiating into specialized cell types
  8. melanocytes
    pigment cells
  9. mast cells
    contain histamine and stimulate inflammation upon tissue injury
  10. chondrocytes
    cartilage cell
  11. osteocytes
    bone cell
  12. extracellular matrix (ECM)
    formed from cells in the connective tissue and is composed of fibers and ground substance
  13. fibers (in ECM)
    collagen, elastic, reticular
  14. ground substance (in ECM)
    • tissue fluid, proteins and polysaccharides
    • the fluid determines consistency of the ground substance
  15. loose (areolar) connective tissue
    • loosely woven tissue that fills spaces b/t organs
    • cells are suspended in an abundance of a "syrupy" ground substance
    • arrangement of fibers allows for distortion w/o damage
    • Ex: loose ct found b/t skin and underlying skeletal muscle
  16. adipose (fat) tissue
    • composed chiefly of adipocytes
    • white fat pale yellow appearance, less vascularized than brown fat
    • brown fat highly vascularized tissue used for heat production via neural stimulation
  17. dense regular connective tissue
    • densely packed collagen fibers with collagen fibers all in parallel arrangement providing strength along orientation of fibers
    • very strong in one direction
    • Ex: tendons (connect musclce to bone - i.e. Achilles tendon), ligaments (connect bone to bone - i.e. anterior cruciate ligaments)
  18. dense irregular connective tissue
    • densely packed collagen fibers that are randomly located providing strength in all directions
    • Ex: dermal layer of skin, perichondrium, periosteum, fibrous capsule of organs
  19. elastic tissue
    • densely packed regular array of elastic fibers
    • thinner, parallel array
    • usually drawn in black from stain
    • Ex: wall of large and medium sized arteries; ligaments b/t adjacent vertebrae (found in ligaments and spine)
  20. Cartilage
    • semisolid matrix that is more rigid and supportive
    • types of cartilage: hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage
  21. hyaline cartilage
    • most common
    • chondrocytes reside in unique space of dense matrix called a lacuna
    • ECM characterized as being avascular, glassy appearing, stiff, rigid, and slightly flexible
    • composed of densely packed collagen fibers and a ground substance of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid (but no calcium salts like in bone)
    • Blood vessels for nutrient delivery are located in surrounding perichondrium
  22. hyaline cartilage locations
    • embryonic skeleton (as a baby)
    • costal
    • tracheal
    • laryngeal
    • nasal
    • articular cartilages
    • bronchi and bronchioles
    • covers ends of bones
  23. fibrocartilage
    • chondrocytes reside in lacunae
    • ECM thick, wavy bundles of collagen fibers allowing for some compression to tissue
    • maintains less ground substance and an abundance of densely interwoven collagen fibers
    • Ex: intervertebral discs, symphyses, menisci
  24. elastic cartilage
    • most flexible
    • chondrocytes reside in lacunae
    • ECM has less densely packed collagen fibers and higher abundance of elastic fibers providing flexibility to tissues
    • Ex: external ear (most common), epiglottis, Eustachian tube

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