Human Physiology 08

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NursyDaisy
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100754
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Human Physiology 08
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2011-10-12 00:48:06
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Human Physiology
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The Central Nervous System
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  1. What part of the nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord?
    central nervous system (CNS)
  2. What type of neurons carry information to the CNS?
    sensory neurons
  3. What type of neuron reach out from the CNS to innervate muscles and glands?
    motor neurons
  4. Three embryonic tissue layers exits. From which of these does the CNS develop?
    the ectoderm
  5. What structure forms as the ectoderm invaginates to begin the formation of the CNS?
    the neural groove
  6. What structure forms as the neural groove deepens and the edges fuse?
    the neural tube
  7. The ganglia of the PNS form from what structure that occurs in embryonic development?
    the neural crest
  8. In the middle of the fourth week of development what three distinct swelling occur on the anterior end of the neural tube?
    the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain
  9. What is the largest part of the brain?
    the cerebrum
  10. What are the cavities in the brain?
    the ventricles
  11. What fills the cavities of the brain?
    cerebrospinal fluid
  12. What is the cavity within the spinal cord?
    the central canal
  13. What superficial portion of the cerebrum holds cell bodies and dendrites of neurons?
    the cerebral cortex
  14. What structures deep within the cerebrum are made up of the cell bodies and dendrites of neurons?
    nuclei
  15. What are the two halves of the cerebrum?
    the cerebral hemispheres
  16. What structure connects the cerebral hemispheres?
    the corpus callosum
  17. What are the folds and grooves of the cerebrum?
    convolutions
  18. What are the elevated folds of the cerebral cortex?
    gyri (singular = gyrus)
  19. What are the grooves of the cerebral cortex?
    sulci (singular = sulcus)
  20. What is the most anterior portion of the cerebrum?
    the frontal lobe
  21. What lobe of the cerebrum lies posterior to the central sulcus?
    parietal lobe
  22. What structure in the frontal lobe of the cerebrum controls skeletal muscle movement?
    the precentral gyrus
  23. What structure within the parietal lobe of the cerebrum is responsible for somatesthetic sensation?
    postcentral gyrus
  24. Which lobe of the cerebrum contains the auditory centers?
    the temporal lobe
  25. Which lobe of the cerebrum is responsible for vision and eye movements?
    the occipital lobe
  26. What lobe of the cerebrum is not visible from the surface and is implicated in memory?
    the insula
  27. What are the masses of gray matter deep within the cerebrum where they function in the control of voluntary movements?
    basal nuclei
  28. What is the crossing of fibers from one side of the cerebrum to the opposite side of the body which results in the right side of the cerebrum controlling and sensing the left side of the body and visa versa?
    decussation
  29. What is the specialization in function of the cerebral hemispheres, the left and right being different?
    cerebral lateralization
  30. Concerning cerebral lateralization, what is the specialty of the right cerebral hemisphere?
    visuospatial tasks
  31. Concerning cerebral lateralization, what is the specialty of the left cerebral hemisphere?
    language and analytical ability
  32. What is the loss or impairment of the power to use or comprehend words usually resulting from brain damage?
    aphasia
  33. What area in the left inferior frontal gyrus and surrounding areas helps control speech? Damage to
    this area results in a reluctance to speak and speech that is slow and poorly articulated.
    Brocca's area (the motor speech area)
  34. What area in the superior temporal gyrus of the left hemisphere helps control speech? Damage to this area results in an inability to organize words into meaningful sentences and an inability to understand spoken or written language.
    Wernicke's area
  35. What two parts of the brain appear to be of paramount importance in the neural basis of emotional states?
    the hypothalamus and the limbic system
  36. What part of the brain consists of a group of forebrain nuclei and fiber tracts that form a ring around the brain stem?
    the limbic system
  37. What part of the brain consists of the cingulate gyrus (part of the cerebral cortex), the amygdala, the
    hippocampus, and the septal nuclei?
    the limbic system
  38. What is the type of memory that involves recall of information for a relatively short time (as a few
    seconds)?
    short -term memory
  39. What is the type of memory that involves the storage and recall of information over a long period of time (as days, weeks, or years)?
    long-term memory
  40. Formerly it was believed that memory was stored diffusely throughout the brain. What is the current
    thought on how memory works in different regions of the brain?
    Particular aspects of memory visual, auditory, olfactory, spatial, etc. are stored in particular areas, and the cooperation of all of these areas is required to elicit the complete memory.
  41. What is the type of synaptic learning in which synapses are first stimulated at high frequency and
    will thus exhibit increased excitability through physiological and anatomical changes?
    long-term potentiation
  42. What is the production of new neurons?
    neurogenesis
  43. What type of cells in the CNS both renew themselves through mitosis and produce differentiated neurons and neuroglia?
    neural stem cells
  44. What portion of the cerebral cortex is involved in higher cognitive functions, including memory, planning, and judgment, and is required for normal motivation, interpersonal skills, and social behavior?
    the prefrontal cortex
  45. What cavities within the brain lie in the cerebral hemispheres?
    the lateral ventricles
  46. What cavity within the brain lies within the diencephalon?
    the third ventricle
  47. What part of the brain composes about four-fifths of the diencephalon and forms the walls of the third ventricle? It consists of paired masses of gray matter, each positioned immediately below the lateral ventricle of its respective cerebral hemisphere and acts primarily as a relay center through which all sensory information (except smell) passes on the way to the cerebrum.
    the thalamus
  48. What part of the diencephalon consists of the choroid plexus of the third ventricle and the pineal gland?
    the epithalamus
  49. What part of the diencephalon is most inferior and forms the floor and part of the walls of the third
    ventricle? It is small, but important in its influence on hunger, thirst, body temperature, hormone
    secretion by the pituitary gland, regulation of sleep, wakefulness, sexual arousal and performance, and emotion.
    the hypothalamus
  50. What region of the brain lies between the cerebrum and the pons?
    the midbrain
  51. What are the four rounded elevations on the dorsal surface of the midbrain?
    the corpora quadrigemina
  52. What parts of the corpora quadrigemina are involved in visual reflexes?
    the superior colliculi
  53. What parts of the corpora quadrigemina are relay centers for auditory information?
    inferior colliculi
  54. What part of the midbrain is composed of ascending and descending fiber tracts?
    the cerebral peduncles
  55. What part of the midbrain is an area of gray matter deep within it and maintains connections with the
    cerebrum and the cerebellum and is thus involved in motor coordination?
    the red nucleus
  56. What is the rounded bulge on the underside of the brain?
    the pons
  57. What is the second largest part of the brain?
    the cerebellum
  58. What is the known function of the cerebellum?
    coordination and equilibrium
  59. What part of the brain lies between the pons superiorly and the spinal cord inferiorly?
    the medulla oblongata
  60. In what part of the brain does decussation take place?
    the medulla oblongata
  61. What part of the medulla oblongata controls the autonomic innervation of blood vessels?
    the vasomotor center
  62. What part of the medulla oblongata controls the autonomic nerve control of the heart?
    the cardiac center
  63. What part of the medulla oblongata acts together with the pons to control breathing?
    the respiratory center
  64. What is the mass of nerve cells and fibers situated primarily in the brain stem and functioning upon
    stimulation especially in arousal of the organism?
    the reticular formation
  65. What is the part of the reticular formation that extends from the brain stem to the midbrain and
    thalamus with connections distributed throughout the cerebral cortex and that controls the degree of
    activity of the central nervous system (as in maintaining sleep and wakefulness and in making
    transitions between the two states)?
    the reticular activating system (RAS)
  66. What is the neurological disorder in which the patient tends to fall asleep inappropriately during the day despite having adequate amounts of sleep?
    narcolepsy
  67. What is the landmark at the boundary between the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord?
    the foramen magnum
  68. In an adult, where does the spinal cord stop inferiorly?
    L1
  69. Where does the gray matter of the spinal lie?
    in the form of an H deep within the cord
  70. What is the general term for the columns of white matter within the spinal cord?
    funiculi
  71. What is the general term for the tracts of white matter carrying sensory information through the spinal cord to the brain?
    ascending tracts
  72. What are tracts of white matter carrying motor impulses from the brain to the periphery?
    descending tracts
  73. What are nerves that arise directly from the brain and not the spinal cord?
    cranial nerves
  74. What are nerves that arise from the spinal cord?
    spinal nerves
  75. What part of a spinal nerve carries sensory input?
    the dorsal (posterior) root
  76. What part of a spinal nerve carries motor output?
    the ventral (anterior) root
  77. What structures associated with the spinal cord contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons?
    the dorsal (posterior) root ganglia
  78. What is an automatic and often inborn response to a stimulus that involves a nerve impulse passing nward from a receptor to a nerve center and thence outward to an effector (as a muscle or gland) without reaching the level of consciousness?
    a reflex
  79. What is the neural pathway of a reflex?
    a reflex arc

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