Human Physiology 09

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NursyDaisy
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100759
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Human Physiology 09
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2011-10-12 00:43:09
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Human Physiology
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The Autonomic Nervous System
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  1. What is the functional division of the nervous system that controls unconscious, vital functions such as digestion, B/P, heart rate, pupil size, etc.?
    the autonomic nervous system
  2. What three effectors are innervated by the ANS?
    • cardiac muscle
    • smooth muscle
    • glands
  3. What functional division of the nervous system controls voluntary movement?
    the somatic nervous system (SNS)
  4. Where are the cell bodies of neurons that are a part of the somatic nervous system?
    in the CNS
  5. How many motor neurons extend from the CNS to innervate a skeletal muscle fiber in the SNS?
    one
  6. How many neurons extend from the CNS to innervate a smooth muscle fiber or a gland?
    two
  7. Of the two motor neurons that work to innervate an effector in the ANS, what term is used to describe the first?
    the preganglionic neuron
  8. Of the two motor neurons that work to innervate an effector in the ANS, what term is used to describe the second?
    postganglionic
  9. Within what structure do a preganglionic neuron and a postganglionic neuron in the ANS synapse?
    an autonomic ganglion
  10. What is a ganglion?
    a cluster of nerve cell bodies outside of the CNS
  11. Of the two motor neurons which innervate an effector in the ANS, which actually synapses with the effector?
    the postganglionic neuron
  12. Where is the cell body of the preganglionic neuron in the ANS?
    in the gray matter of the brain or spinal cord
  13. Where is the cell body of a postganglionic neuron within the ANS?
    the autonomic ganglion
  14. The effect of impulses from motor neurons of the SNS is always excitatory. What are the possible
    effects of impulses from motor neurons of the ANS?
    excitatory or inhibitory
  15. What are the two divisions of the ANS?
    sympathetic and parasympathetic
  16. What is a synonym for the sympathetic division of the ANS?
    the thoracolumbar division
  17. At what levels does the sympathetic division of the ANS exit the spinal cord?
    T1-L2
  18. Ganglia of the sympathetic division of the ANS occur in three different chains or clusters. What are
    they?
    • the cervical ganglia in the neck
    • the paravertebral ganglia on either side of the vertebral column
    • peripheral or collateral or prevertebral ganglia
  19. What are the three peripheral ganglia?
    • celiac
    • superior mesenteric
    • inferior mesenteric
  20. The sympathetic division of the ANS innervates the blood vessels and glands in the skin and skeletal
    muscles. Within what structures do fibers of the sympathetic division travel to get to the periphery?
    spinal nerves
  21. What structures make the connection between paravertebral ganglia and spinal nerves?
    communicating rami
  22. Which communicating ramus does a preganglionic neuron travel through to get to a paravertebral
    ganglion?
    the white ramus (the lateral one)
  23. Which communicating ramus does a postganglionic neuron travel through to get into a spinal and travel to the periphery?
    the gray ramus (the medial one)
  24. What are the two parts of the adrenal glands?
    the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla
  25. What hormones does the adrenal medulla secrete?
    epinephrine and norepinephrine
  26. What is the relationship of the adrenal medulla to the sympathetic division of the ANS?
    the cells of the adrenal medulla are specialized postganglionic cells
  27. What is a synonym for the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
    the craniosacral division
  28. Fibers of the preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division of the ANS exit from what
    regions of the CNS?
    the brain (midbrain, medulla oblongata, and the pons) and S2, S3, and S4 of the spinal cord
  29. Where do ganglia of the parasympathetic division of the ANS lie?
    next to or within the organs being innervated
  30. What is a synonym for the ganglia of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
    terminal ganglia
  31. Do fibers of the parasympathetic division of the ANS travel in spinal nerves?
    no
  32. Does the parasympathetic division of the ANS innervate the periphery of the body (smooth muscle
    and glands in the skin and skeletal muscles)?
    no
  33. What four cranial nerves contain preganglionic parasympathetic fibers?
    • oculomotor (III)
    • facial (VII)
    • glossopharyngeal (IX)
    • vagus (X)
  34. Which cranial nerve carries about 80% of the parasympathetic output?
    the vagus nerve
  35. What phrase describes the function of the sympathetic division of the ANS?
    fight or flight
  36. What phrase describes the function of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
    rest and digest
  37. What neurotransmitter is used by all preganglionic neurons in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS?
    acetylcholine (ACh)
  38. What neurotransmitter is used by most postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
    acetylcholine (ACh)
  39. What type of transmission occurs at all synapses between pre- and postganglionic neurons and at the
    synapses between most postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division of the ANS and their
    effectors?
    cholinergic
  40. What neurotransmitter is used by most postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers?
    norepinepherine (noradrenaline)
  41. What type of transmission occurs at the synapses between postganglionic sympathetic neurons and
    their effectors?
    adrenergic
  42. What neurotransmitter is used by postganlionic sympathetic fibers innervating sweat glands and
    blood vessels in skeletal muscles?
    acetylcholine (ACh)
  43. Epinepherine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are all derived from what amino acid?
    tyrosine
  44. What term collectively describes epinepherine, norepinephrine, and dopamine collectively?
    catecholamines
  45. The axons of postganglionic neurons have numerous enlargements along their length after entering a target organ. These release neurotransmitters. What are these enlargements?
    varicosities
  46. Adrenergic stimulation by epinephrine or norepinepherine can have an excitatory or inhibitory
    effect. The result depends on the receptor. What are the two major classes of adrenergic receptor proteins?
    alpha and beta
  47. There are two major classes of adrenergic receptors. Each of these has two subtypes. What are they?
    • alpha1
    • alpha2
    • beta1
    • beta2
  48. All adrenergic receptors act by way of what type of molecule?
    G-protein
  49. All beta subtypes of adrenergic receptors stimulate the production of what second messenger?
    cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate)
  50. Adrenergic receptors of the alpha1 subtype work through what second messenger?
    Ca2+
  51. Alpha2-adrenergic receptors located on the presynaptic axon terminal cause what effect?
    a decrease in the release of norepinepherine
  52. Alpha2-adrenergic receptors located on the postsynaptic membrane of vascular smooth muscle cause what effect?
    vasoconstriction
  53. The stimulation of alpha1-adrenergic receptors consistently causes what effect on smooth muscle?
    contraction
  54. The vasoconstrictor effect of sympathetic nerves always results form the activation of what type of
    receptor?
    alpha-adrenergic
  55. What is the effect of stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors on smooth muscles in the deigestive tract, brochioles, adn uterus?
    relaxation
  56. What is the effect of beta-adrenergic receptors on cardiac muscle?
    an increase in the force and rate of contraction
  57. All somatic motor neurons, all preganglionic neurons and most postganglionic parasymapthetic neurons are what type?
    cholinergic
  58. All somatic motor neurons, all preganglionic neurons and most postganglionic parasymapthetic neurons use what neurotransmitter?
    acetylcholine
  59. What is the effect of ACh released by somatic motor neurons and by preganglionic autonomic neurons?
    excitatory
  60. What is the effect of ACh released by postganglionic parasympathetic axons?
    usually excitatory, but may be inhibitory
  61. What is the effect of ACh release by parasympathetic neurons on the heart?
    inhibitory
  62. What are the two types of cholinergic receptors?
    nicotinic and muscarinic
  63. What drug blocks the action of nicotinic ACh receptors?
    curare
  64. What drug blocks nuscarinic ACh receptors?
    atropine
  65. What effect does ACh always have on nicotinic receptors?
    excitatory
  66. What effect does ACh have on muscarinic receptors?
    either excitatory or inhibitory depending on the effect of the G-protein
  67. Not all receptors response to acetylcholine or norepinephrine. What term describes those that do
    not?
    noncholinergic and nonadrenergic respectively
  68. What gas acts as a neurotransmitter?
    nitric oxide (NO)
  69. What effect does nitric oxide have on smooth muscle?
    relaxation
  70. What nucleotide acts as a neurotransmitter?
    adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  71. What term describes the innervation of an organ by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS?
    dual innervation
  72. What term describes the effect of dual innervation of the organ by the ANS when the effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions are opposite one another?
    antagonistic
  73. What term describes the effect of dual innervation of the organ by the ANS when the effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions produce similar effects?
    complementary
  74. What term describes the effect of dual innervation of the organ by the ANS when the sympathetic
    and parasympathetic divisions produce different effects that work together to promote a single action?
    cooperative (synergistic)
  75. What is an example of antagonistic effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the
    ANS?
    heart rate (others are pupil size, diameter of airways, and digestion)
  76. What is an example of a complementary effect of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS?
    production of saliva
  77. What is an example of a cooperative effect of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the
    ANS?
    erection and ejaculation in the male reproductive system
  78. Most organs receive dual innervation. However, the parasympathetic division of the ANS does not
    innervate the periphery of the body. What structure of the body are innervated only by the sympathetic division of the ANS?
    the adrenal medulla, arrector pili muscles of the skin, sweat glands of the skin, and most blood vessels
  79. How is regulation generally achieved within structures innervated only by the sympathetic division of the ANS?
    by increasing or decreasing the firing rate of sympathetic fibers
  80. Experimental stimulation of what structure can elicit almost all autonomic responses thus showing that this structure plays the major role in controlling the ANS?
    medulla oblongata
  81. What structure contains centers that control body temperature, hunger, thirst, and the pituitary gland?
    the hypothalamus
  82. What structure is a group of fiber tracts and nucelei that form a ring around the brain stem and is involved in basic emotional drives and thus influences many visceral reactions such as blushing, pallor, fainting, breaking out in a cold sweat, a racing heartbeat, and "butterflies in the stomach"?
    the limbic system
  83. What structure sends impulses to the medulla oblongata influencing activity of the ANS such as
    nausea, sweating, and cardiovascular changes?
    the cerebellum
  84. What structures of the brain have the greatest influence on the ANS?
    the medulla oblongata, the hypothalamus, the limbic system, and the cerebellum

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