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  1. 3 types of isomerism
    • Coordination isomers: ligand and counter ion exchange places
    • Geometric isomers: differ in spatial orientation of ligands (cis/trans or fac/mer)
    • Enantiomers: stereoisomers that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of eachother
  2. Strong field ligands vs weak field ligands, how do they fill? How can you determine the split d orbital delta?
    • Strong field: CN- > NO2- > en > NH3. Fill the bottom 3 orbitals first then the top 2 afterward as two different energy levels
    • Weak field: H2O > OH- > F- > Cl- > Br- > I-. Fill all 5 orbitals as a single energy level
    • Ephoton = hν = hc/λ = Δ split d orbital [using wavelength of max absorption]
  3. 3 Ways of radiation absorption by molecules w/ spectrum area
    • Rotational transitions: microwave regions (causes molecules to rotate)
    • Vibrational transitions: infared regions (causes molecules to vibrate)
    • Electronic transition: visible and ultraviolet regions (move electron from lower to higher energy level within split d sublevels)
  4. Transmittance and absorption equations + Beer's law
    • T = P/Po
    • A = log(Po/P)
    • Beer's Law: relationship between amt radiation absorbed and concentration of the analyte
    • A = εbc [ε = absorptivity constant for each compound, b = length of cell, c = concentration (M)]
  5. Chemical kinetics general rate equation + difference btween avg rate and instantaneous rate
    • Rate = Δ[product]/Δtime = -Δ[reactant]/Δtime
    • Average rate: change in measured concentration in any particular time period (linear approximation of a curve)
    • Instantaneous rate: change in concentration at any one particular time (slope at any one point of a curve)
  6. All integrated rate law functions for zero order reactions
    • [A] = -kt + [A]i
    • graph of [A] vs time is a straight line w/ slope -k and y-intercept [A]i
    • t1/2 = [A]i/2k
  7. All integrated rate law functions for first order reactions
    • ln[A] = -kt + ln[A]i
    • graph of ln[A] vs time is a straight line w/ slope -k and y-intercept ln[A]i
    • t1/2 = 0.693/k
  8. All integrated rate law functions for second order reactions
    • 1/[A] = kt + 1/[A]i
    • graph of 1/[A] vs time is a straight line w/ slope +k and y-intercept 1/[A]i
    • t1/2 = 1/k[A]i
  9. Effect of temperature on k equations + Arrhenious equation + Arrhenious equation 2-point form
    • k = A(e-Ea/RT)
    • T = temperature in kelvin
    • R = 8.314J/mol k
    • A = frequency factor (# molecules that begin to form the activated complex in a given period of time)
    • Ea = activation energy (amt energy needed to convert reactants into the activated complex)
    • Arrhenious equation: ln(k) = -Ea/R(1/T) + ln(A)
    • Arrhenious equation (2-point form): ln(k2/k1) = (Ea/R)(1/T1 - 1/T2)
Card Set:
2011-09-10 00:15:04

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