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3 types of isomerism
 Coordination isomers: ligand and counter ion exchange places
 Geometric isomers: differ in spatial orientation of ligands (cis/trans or fac/mer)
 Enantiomers: stereoisomers that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of eachother

Strong field ligands vs weak field ligands, how do they fill? How can you determine the split d orbital delta?
 Strong field: CN^{} > NO_{2}^{} > en > NH_{3}. Fill the bottom 3 orbitals first then the top 2 afterward as two different energy levels
 Weak field: H_{2}O > OH^{} > F^{} > Cl^{} > Br^{} > I^{}. Fill all 5 orbitals as a single energy level
 E_{photon} = hν = hc/λ = Δ split d orbital [using wavelength of max absorption]

3 Ways of radiation absorption by molecules w/ spectrum area
 Rotational transitions: microwave regions (causes molecules to rotate)
 Vibrational transitions: infared regions (causes molecules to vibrate)
 Electronic transition: visible and ultraviolet regions (move electron from lower to higher energy level within split d sublevels)

Transmittance and absorption equations + Beer's law
 T = P/P_{o}
 A = log(P_{o}/P)
 Beer's Law: relationship between amt radiation absorbed and concentration of the analyte
 A = εbc [ε = absorptivity constant for each compound, b = length of cell, c = concentration (M)]

Chemical kinetics general rate equation + difference btween avg rate and instantaneous rate
 Rate = Δ[product]/Δtime = Δ[reactant]/Δtime
 Average rate: change in measured concentration in any particular time period (linear approximation of a curve)
 Instantaneous rate: change in concentration at any one particular time (slope at any one point of a curve)

All integrated rate law functions for zero order reactions
 [A] = kt + [A]_{i}
 graph of [A] vs time is a straight line w/ slope k and yintercept [A]_{i}
 t_{1/2} = [A]_{i}/2k

All integrated rate law functions for first order reactions
 ln[A] = kt + ln[A]_{i}
 graph of ln[A] vs time is a straight line w/ slope k and yintercept ln[A]_{i}
 t_{1/2} = 0.693/k

All integrated rate law functions for second order reactions
 1/[A] = kt + 1/[A]_{i}
 graph of 1/[A] vs time is a straight line w/ slope +k and yintercept 1/[A]_{i}
 t_{1/2} = 1/k[A]_{i}

Effect of temperature on k equations + Arrhenious equation + Arrhenious equation 2point form
 k = A(e^{Ea/RT})
 T = temperature in kelvin
 R = 8.314J/mol k
 A = frequency factor (# molecules that begin to form the activated complex in a given period of time)
 Ea = activation energy (amt energy needed to convert reactants into the activated complex)
 Arrhenious equation: ln(k) = Ea/R(1/T) + ln(A)
 Arrhenious equation (2point form): ln(k_{2}/k_{1}) = (Ea/R)(1/T_{1}  1/T_{2})


