Human Physiology 11

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Human Physiology 11
2011-10-12 00:26:37
Human Physiology

Endocrine System
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  1. What type of glands secrete their products onto an epithelial surface?
  2. What type of glands secrete their products directly into the blood?
  3. What are the products of endocrine glands?
  4. What are the cells directly affected by a particular hormone?
    target cells
  5. What term describes a gland that is both exocrine and endocrine?
  6. What are chemical messengers secreted by neurons into the blood rather than into a synapse?
  7. What are hormones derived from the amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan?
  8. What are hormones that contain less than 100 amino acids?
    polypeptide hormones
  9. What are hormones composed of more than 100 amino acids?
    protein hormones
  10. What are hormones composed of more than 100 amino acids and bound to one or more carbohydrate
  11. What are hormones derived from cholesterol?
  12. Hormones may be classified into two group based on their solubility. What are these two groups?
    • polar (water soluble)
    • nonpolar (lipid soluble or lipophilic)
  13. Lipophilic hormones include what two groups?
    steroids and thyroid hormones
  14. What two endocrine glands produce steroids?
    the gonads and the adrenal cortex
  15. What general group of hormones do the gonads produce?
    sex steroids
  16. What general group of hormones do the adrenal cortices produce?
  17. The major thyroid hormones are composed of two derivatives of what amino acid?
  18. What thyroid hormone contains four iodine atoms?
    tetraiodothyronine (T4, thyroxine)
  19. What thyroid hormone contains three iodine molecules?
    triiodothyronine (T3)
  20. What hormones may be taken orally?
    steriod and thyroid hormones
  21. What hormones must be injected?
    polypeptide and glycoprotein hormones
  22. Endocrine glands may secrete what precursor molecules that are inactive until changed by their
    target cells?
  23. What three factors must be in place for a regulatory molecule, that is, a neurotransmittor or a hormone, to function?
    target cells must have specific receptors the receptors and the regulatory molecule must cause aspecific sequence of change in the target cells there must be a mechanism to turn off the action of the regulator
  24. What is the effect of two or more hormones that work together to produce a particular result?
  25. What is the effect of a hormone if it enhances the responsiveness of a target cell or if it increases the
    activity of the second hormone?
  26. What is the effect of a hormone if its influence on a target cell is the opposite of a second hormone?
  27. What is the time required for half of something to undergo a process: as (a) the time required for half of the atoms of a radioactive substance to become disintegrated (b) the time required for half the amount of a substance (as a drug or radioactive tracer) in or introduced into a living system or ecosystem to be eliminated or disintegrated by natural processes?
  28. What is the effect of small amounts of a hormone which lead to greater sensitivity of the target cels?
    priming effect
  29. What is the effect of prolonged exposure to high concentrations of a hormone?
  30. What natural phenomenon prevents desensitization?
    pulsatile secretion
  31. Lipohilic hormones are not water-soluble. How are they transported in the blood?
    on carrier proteins
  32. What type of receptors interact with the lipophilic hormones?
    nuclear hormone receptors
  33. What is the general effect of lipophilic hormones?
    gene activation
  34. Activated nuclear hormone receptors function as what?
    transcription factors
  35. What are the two regions of a nuclear hormone receptor?
    • a ligand (hormone)-binding domain
    • a DNA-binding domain
  36. What is the specific site on DNA to which the DNA-binding domain of a nuclear hormone receptor
    the hormone-response element
  37. What two groups of hormones travel through the cell membrane and interact with nuclear hormone receptors?
    steroids and thyroid hormones
  38. Polar hormones (catecholamines, polypeptides, and glycoprotines) cannot pass through the cell membrane. What mechanism do they use to effect the metabolism of their target cells?
    second messengers
  39. What second messenger was first discovered and is now the best understood?
    cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
  40. What is the effect of the second messenger cAMP?
    It activates protein kinase which then carries out its enzymatic activity
  41. There must be a mechanism to turn off the action of a hormone. What turns off cAMP?
  42. What is a synonym for the hypophysis?
    the pituitary gland
  43. Within what skeletal structure does the pituitary gland sit?
    the sella turcica of the sphenoid
  44. What is the approximate size of the pituitary?
    the size of a pea
  45. To what major region of the brain is the pituitary attached?
    the diencephalon
  46. What part of the brain is attached to the pituitary and largely controls it?
    the hypothalamus
  47. What connects the pituitary to the brain?
    the infundibulum
  48. What are the two main parts of the pituitary?
    the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
  49. What type of hormones are released by the anterior pituitary?
    trophic hormones
  50. List the six hormones released by the anterior pituitary.
    • growth hormone (GH)
    • thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • prolactin (PRL)
  51. What hormone of the anterior pituitary promotes overall tissue and organ growth?
    growth hormone (GH)
  52. What hormone of the anterior pituitary stimulates the thyroid gland?
    thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  53. What hormone of the anterior pituitary stimulates the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex?
    adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  54. What hormone of the pituitary stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles in females and the production of sperm cells in the testes of males?
    follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  55. What hormone of the pituitary stimulates ovulation and the conversion of the ovulated ovarian follicle into an endocrine structure called a corpus luteum and in males stimulates the secretion of male sex hormones form the interstitial cells of the testes?
    luteinizing hormone
  56. What two hormones are collectively called gonadotropic hormones?
    • follicle-stimulating hormone
    • luteinizing hormone
  57. What hormone of the pituitary stimulates the production of milk in mammary glands?
  58. What two hormones are stored in the posterior pituitary?
    • antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • oxytocin
  59. What hormone promotes the retention of water in the kidneys by targeting the collecting ducts?
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  60. High levels of what hormone cause vasoconstriction?
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  61. What is a synonym for ADH?
    vasopressin (VP)
  62. What hormone stimulates contraction of the uterus and acts to bring about milk let down?
  63. Where are the hormones stored in the posterior pituitary produced?
    in the hypothalamus
  64. Within what structures are the hormones stored in the posterior pituitary transported from where they are produced?
  65. What controls the release of the hormones of the posterior pituitary?
    neuroendocrine reflexes
  66. What substances control the action of the anterior pituitary?
    releasing and inhibiting hormones
  67. What structure most immediately controls the action of the anterior pituitary?
    the hypothalamus
  68. What type of vascular system carries releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary?
    a portal system
  69. What is a vascular system that begins and ends with capillary beds joined by veins?
    a portal system
  70. What type of vascular system carries releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary?
    a portal system
  71. What type of mechanism controls the release of hormones by the anterior pituitary?
    negative feedback inhibition
  72. What are chemical signals that are secreted to the outside of the body and act through the olfactory senses to modify the physiology or behavior of another member of the same species?
  73. What endocrine glands are located on the superior border of the kidneys?
    the adrenal glands
  74. What are the two main components of the adrenal glands?
    • the adrenal cortex
    • the adrenal medulla
  75. What endocrine gland is a part of the sympathetic division of the ANS?
    the adrenal medulla
  76. What hormones are released by the adrenal medulla?
    catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine)
  77. What stimulates the adrenal medulla to release its hormones?
    preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers
  78. What stimulates the adrenal cortex to release its hormones?
    ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
  79. What is the collective term for the hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex?
    corticosteriods (corticoids)
  80. What are the three functional categories of corticosteroids?
    • mineralocorticoids
    • glucocorticoids
    • sex steroids
  81. What is the most potent of the mineralocorticoids?
  82. What is the predominant glucocorticoid?
    cortisol (hydrocortisone)
  83. What hormone causes the kidneys to retain Na+ and water while excreting K+, thus increasing blood
    volume and pressure?
  84. What hormone stimulates gluconeogenesis and inhibits glucose utilization thus helping to raise
    blood glucose levels? This hormone also promotes lipolysis.
  85. What group of hormones increase cardiac output and heart rate, dilate coronary blood vessels, increase mental alertness, increase the respiratory rate, and elevate the metabolic rate?
  86. What is the medical term for a nonspecific response of the body to readjust itself following any demands made upon it, that is, the response to stressors?
    general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
  87. Chronic stress cause what endocrine glands to respond?
    the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
  88. Chronic stress causes the prolonged release of what hormones?
    • cortisol from the adrenal cortex
    • epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla
  89. What is the general effect of the prolonged secretion of cortisol?
    inhibition of the immune response
  90. What is the effect of chronic stress on the immune system? What hormone causes the effect?
    suppression by cortisol
  91. What endocrine gland has a lobe on each side of the larynx and an isthmus just inferior to the larynx and immediately anterior to the trachea?
    the thyroid
  92. What two thyroid hormones contain iodine?
    tetraiodothyronine (T4), also know as thyroxine and triiodothyronine (T3)
  93. What is the general effect of thyroid hormones containing iodine?
    They increase the basal metabolic rate
  94. What hormone lowers blood calcium levels?
  95. What pathological condition occurs as a result of an iodine deficiency?
    iodine-deficiency (endemic) goiter
  96. What term refers to an inadequate secretion by the thyroid?
  97. What is an accumulation of mucoproteins and fluid in subcutaneous connective tissues, swelling of the hands, face, feet, and tissues around the eyes and is caused by hypothyroidism?
  98. What medical term refers to an over secretion by the thyroid?
  99. What disease results in hyperthyroidism when autoantibodies exert a TSH-like effect on the thyroid?
    Grave's disease
  100. Exophthalmia, a high BMR, weight loss, nervousness, irritability and an intolerance to heat are
    signs of what disease?
    Grave's disease
  101. Hypothyroidism in the fetus and neonate will result in what condition?
  102. What endocrine glands are embedded on the posterior side of the thyroid?
    parathyroid glands
  103. How many parathyroid glands are there?
    4, two on each lobe of the thyroid, one being superior, one inferior
  104. What is the only hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands?
    parathyroid hormone
  105. What term refers to glands that are both endocrine and exocrine glands?
  106. What accessory gland of the digestive system is a heterocrine gland?
    the pancreas
  107. What clusters of cells within the pancreas fulfill its endocrine function?
    pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)
  108. What two hormones are secreted by the pancreas?
    • glucagon
    • insulin
  109. What cells of the pancreas secrete glucagon?
    alpha cells
  110. What cells of the pancreas secrete insulin?
    beta cells
  111. What hormone is released by the pancreas in response to falling blood glucose levels?
  112. What hormone is released by the pancreas in response to rising blood glucose levels?
  113. What hormone has the following effect?
    It stimulates the liver to hydrolyze glycogen to
    glucose and release that glucose into the blood. It also stimulates the hydrolysis of stored fat thus raising free fatty acid levels in the blood. It also contributes to the conversion of fatty acids to ketone bodies.
  114. What hormone has the following effect?
    It promotes the entry of glucose into cells and the
    conversion of this glucose into glycogen and fat.
  115. What endocrine gland is in the roof of the third ventricle of the diencephalon?
    the pineal gland
  116. What is the principle hormone of the pineal gland?
  117. Melatonin is known to be involved in what daily process?
    circadian rhythm
  118. What endocrine gland is located within the mediastinum anterior to the aorta and deep to the
    the thymus
  119. What endocrine glands functions to produce and stimulate T cells?
    the thymus
  120. What endocrine gland is involved in cell-mediated immunity?
    the thymus
  121. Collectively, the male sex hormones are known as what?
  122. What is the principal androgen?
  123. What are the female sex hormones?
    estrogens and progesterone
  124. What type of regulatory molecule are produced and active on the same cell type within the organ producing them?
    autocrine regulators
  125. What type of regulatory molecules are produced within one tissue and active in a different tissue of the same organ?
    paracrine regulators
  126. What autocrine regulators are twenty-carbon long fatty acids which contain a five-membered carbon ring?