Human Physiology 13

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NursyDaisy
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100784
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Human Physiology 13
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2011-10-12 00:09:42
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Human Physiology
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Blood, Heart, and Circulation
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  1. What is the estimated total length of all the blood in the body?
    60,000 miles
  2. What are the three main functions of the circulatory system?
    • transportation
    • regulation
    • protection
  3. What are the three main groups of substances transported by the circulatory system?
    • respiratory
    • nutritive
    • excretory
  4. What are the two main categories of factors that the circulatory system aids in regulating?
    • hormones
    • temperature
  5. What are the two main ways in which the circulatory system protects the body?
    • clotting
    • immunity
  6. What are the two divisions of the circulatory system?
    • cardiovascular system
    • lymphatic system
  7. What type of blood vessels carry blood away from the heart?
    arteries
  8. What type of blood vessels carry blood back to the heart?
    veins
  9. What are the smallest arteries?
    arterioles
  10. What vessels of the circulatory system are the business end of the system?
    capillaries
  11. What are the smallest veins?
    venules
  12. What is the fluid portion of the blood?
    plasma
  13. What extracellular fluid surrounds the cells within the tissues of the body?
    tissue fluid (interstitial fluid)
  14. What is the average total blood volume of an adult?
    5 liters
  15. What term refers to blood leaving the heart?
    arterial blood
  16. What term refers to blood returning to the heart after passing through or around capillary beds?
    venous blood
  17. In what part of the circulatory system is venous blood oxygen-rich?
    the pulmonary ciruclation
  18. What are the three formed elements of the blood?
    • red blood cells (RBCs)
    • white blood cells (WBCs)
    • platelets
  19. What term refers to the percentage of the blood made up of RBCs?
    hematocrit
  20. What is the normal range of the hematocrit in women?
    36%-36%
  21. What is the normal range of the hematocrit in men?
    41%-53%
  22. What is the major solute in blood?
    Na+
  23. List some of the substances dissolved in plasma.
    • ion
    • metabolites
    • hormones
    • enzymes
    • antibodies
    • proteins
  24. List the three types of plasma proteins.
    • albumins
    • globulins
    • fibrinogen
  25. What type of plasma proteins are the smallest and function to provide the osmotic pressure needed to
    draw water from tissue fluid into capillaries?
    albumins
  26. List the three types of globulins.
    • alpha globulins
    • beta globulins
    • gamma globulins
  27. What two types of globulins transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins?
    alpha and beta globulins
  28. What type of globulins are antibodies?
    gamma globulins
  29. What type of plasma protein functions in clotting?
    fibrinogen
  30. What is the watery fluid left over after the coagulation of blood?
    serum
  31. What is a synonym for RBCs?
    erythrocytes
  32. What is a synonym for WBCs?
    leukocytes
  33. What is the shape of an RBC?
    It is a flattened, biconcaved disc.
  34. What organelles does an RBC lack?
    a nucleus and mitochondria
  35. What is the approximate life span of a mature RBC?
    120 days
  36. What organs remove older RBCs from circulation?
    the liver, spleen, and bone marrow
  37. What is the main function of RBCs?
    to transport oxygen
  38. What protein within RBCs carries oxygen?
    hemoglobin
  39. What proteins make up hemoglobin?
    four globins, each of which contains a heme group that contains iron
  40. As old, worn out RBCs are destroyed, what portion of hemoglobin is recycled within the body?
    the iron in the heme groups
  41. What condition results due to a lack of iron in the diet?
    iron-deficiency anemia
  42. What are the two main types of leukocytes?
    granular and agranular (nongranular)
  43. What two stains are used on blood?
    eosin and basic stain
  44. What are the three types of granular WBCs?
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
    • neutrophils
  45. What type of WBC is granular and readily absorbs eosin?
    eosinophils
  46. What type of granular WBC readily absorbs basic stain?
    basophil
  47. What type of granular WBC has little affinity for either commonly used stain?
    neutrophil
  48. What is the most common type of WBC?
    neutrophil
  49. What are the two types of agranular WBCs?
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
  50. What is the second most common type of WBC?
    lymphocyte
  51. What agranular WBC is small and has a round nucleus little cytoplasm?
    lymphocyte
  52. What are the largest WBCs?
    monocytes
  53. What type of WBC is agranular and has a kidney- or horsehoe-shaped nucleus?
    monocyte
  54. What formed element of the blood is composed of fragments of cells?
    platelets
  55. What is the life span of platelets?
    5 to 9 days
  56. What organs destroy old platelets?
    the liver and spleen
  57. What is the formation of blood or blood cells in the body?
    hematopoiesis (hemopoiesis)
  58. What are the cells that give rise to the blood cells?
    hematopoietic stem cells
  59. What hormone stimulates the production of RBCs?
    erythropoietin
  60. What organ makes erythropoietin?
    the kidneys
  61. What hormone stimulates the production of platelets?
    thrombopoietin
  62. What organs make thrombopoietin?
    the liver and kidneys
  63. What factor causes the production of erythropoietin by the kidneys?
    decreased O2 levels in the blood
  64. What is a substance that may invoke an immune response?
    an antigen
  65. What are proteins that a specific to particular antigens?
    antibodies
  66. What is the major group of red blood cell antigens?
    the ABO system
  67. What are the four blood types found in the ABO system?
    • A
    • B
    • AB
    • O
  68. What antigen is found on the RBCs of type A blood?
    A
  69. What antigen is found on the RBCs of type B blood?
    B
  70. What antigens are found on the RBCs of type AB blood?
    A & B
  71. Within the ABO system of antigens on RBCs, what antigen(s) is (are) found on RBCs of blood type
    O?
    none
  72. In relation to the ABO system, what antibodies occur in type A blood?
    b
  73. In relation to the ABO system, what antibodies occur in type B blood?
    a
  74. In relation to the ABO system, what antibodies occur in type AB blood?
    none
  75. In relation to the ABO system, what antibodies occur in type O blood?
    a & b
  76. What is the medical term for the clumping of RBCs?
    agglutination
  77. What ABO blood type is the universal donor?
    O
  78. What ABO blood type is the universal recepient?
    AB
  79. What antigen on RBCs was first discovered in rhesus monkeys?
    Rh
  80. What is the designation of the blood type in which the Rh factor is present on RBCs?
    Rh positive
  81. What condition may occur if the biological mother of a child is Rh- and the father is Rh+?
    erythroblastosis fetalis (hemolytic disease of the newborn)
  82. What drug is given to an Rh- biological mother to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn if the biological father is Rh+?
    RhoGAM
  83. What three separate but overlapping processes take place when the endothelial lining of a blood vessel is broken?
    vasoconstriction ó the formation of a platelet plug the production of a web of fibrin proteins that penetrates and surrounds the plug
  84. When the endothelium of a vessel is damaged platelets adhere to what two substances in the damaged wall?
    collagen and von Willebrandís factor
  85. What platelets begin adhering to the wall of a vessel what substances released by the platelets cause other platelets to become sticky?
    ADP & thromboxane A2 (TxA2)
  86. The adhesion of platelets to the damaged wall of a vessel and the platelet release reaction lead to the
    formation of what?
    the platelet plug
  87. What ion must be present for the formation of a web of fibrin in the clotting of blood?
    Ca2+
  88. What substances in the blood interact with negatively charged surfaces, one another, Ca2+, and phospholipids to begin the formation of a web of fibrin in blood clotting?
    plasma clotting factors
  89. What inactive glycoprotein is activated to bring about clotting?
    prothrombin
  90. What is the active form of prothrombin?
    thrombin
  91. Thrombin converts what substance into a monomer?
    fibrinogen
  92. What monomer is fibrinogen converted into in the process of blood clotting?
    fibrin
  93. Fibrinogen is converted to what substance in the process of blood clotting?
    fibrin
  94. What enzyme converts fibrinogen to fibrin?
    thrombin
  95. What becomes of the fibrin formed by the conversion fibrinogen into fibrin?
    It forms fibrin polymers, long strands of fibrin that form a web.
  96. What substance that increases the rate of clot formation is released by damaged tissues?
    thromboplastin
  97. What are substances that prevent clotting?
    anticoagulants
  98. List four anticoagulants.
    • aspirin
    • coumarin
    • heparin
    • citrate
  99. What chambers of the heart receive venous blood?
    the atria
  100. What chambers of the heart pump blood in the arterial system?
    the ventricles
  101. How many chambers are there in the heart?
    4
  102. What portion of the circulatory system carries blood to and from the lungs?
    the pulmonary circulation
  103. What portion of the circulatory system carries blood to all of the body except the lungs?
    the systemic circulation
  104. What is the function of valves in the circulatory system?
    to prevent the blood from flowing in the wrong direction
  105. How many valves are in the heart?
    4
  106. What heart valves lie between the atria and the ventricles and are thus named?
    the atrioventricular (AV) valves
  107. What heart valves prevent blood from returning to the ventricles?
    the semilunar valves
  108. What valve lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle?
    the tricuspid valve
  109. What valve presents blood from returning to the right atrium?
    the tricuspid valve
  110. What valve lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle?
    the mitral valve
  111. What valve prevents blood from returning to the left atrium?
    the mitral valve
  112. What valve lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk?
    the pulmonary valve
  113. What valve prevents blood from returning to the right ventricle?
    the pulmonary valve
  114. What valve lies between the left ventricle and the aorta?
    the aortic valve
  115. What valve prevents blood from returning to the left ventricle?
    the aortic valve
  116. What is the repeating pattern of contraction and relaxation in the heart?
    the cardiac cycle
  117. What is the phase of contraction in the heart?
    systole
  118. What is the phase of relaxation in the heart?
    diastole
  119. What is the function of the atria?
    to pump the last 20% of the end-diastolic volume into the ventricles
  120. What is the function of the ventricles?
    to pump blood into the arterial system
  121. What is the medical term for the amount of blood ejected from the ventricles?
    stroke volume
  122. What produces the heart sounds?
    the closing of the valves
  123. What produces the first heart sound?
    the atrioventricular valves
  124. What produces the second heart sound?
    the semilunar valves
  125. What sound is produced if heart valves do not close properly?
    heart murmurs
  126. Following blood through the heart from that returning from the body to blood being pumped to the body, what chamber of the heart receives blood returning from the body?
    the right atrium
  127. Following blood through the heart from that returning from the body to blood being pumped to the body, what chamber of the heart pumps blood to the lungs?
    the right ventricle
  128. Following blood through the heart from that returning from the body to blood being pumped to the body, what chamber of the heart receives blood returning from the lungs?
    the left atrium
  129. Following blood through the heart from that returning from the body to blood being pumped to
    the body, what chamber of the heart pumps blood to the body?
    the left ventricle
  130. What is the pacemaker of the heart?
    the sinoatrial node (SA node)
  131. What is the influence of the nervous system on the SA node?
    The nervous system can only modify the rate of spontaneous depolarization of the SA node. It does not cause depolarization.
  132. What part of the conduction system of the heart conducts the impulse initiated by the SA node after the impulse has swept through the atria?
    the atrioventricular node (AV node)
  133. What part of the hearts conduction system delays the impulse while the atria contract?
    the atrioventricular node (AV node)
  134. What part of the heartís conduction system carries the impulse from through the fibrous skeleton of the heart?
    the atrioventricular bundle (the bundle of His)
  135. The atrioventricular bundle of the heart's conduction system divides into what two parts?
    the left and right bundle branches
  136. What part of the heartís conduction system lies within the ventricular walls?
    the Purkinje fibers
  137. What is an electrical recording of the heartís activity?
    an electrocardiogram
  138. What portion of an ECG records the depolarization of the atria?
    the P wave
  139. What part of an ECG records the depolarization of the ventricles?
    the QRS complex
  140. What part of an ECG records the repolarization of the ventricles?
    the T wave
  141. In relation to an ECG, when does the first heart sound occur?
    at the end of the QRS complex
  142. In relation to an ECG, when does the second heart sound occur?
    shortly after the beginning of the T wave
  143. What are two structural differences between arteries and veins?
    Veins have thinner walls than arteries. They also have valves.
  144. What is the driving force of blood in arteries?
    blood pressure produced by the heart
  145. What three factors moving blood through veins?
    • the skeletal muscle pump
    • gravity
    • decreases in the pressure within the thoracic cavity
  146. What is hardening of the arteries?
    arteriosclerosis
  147. What is the most common form of arteriosclerosis?
    atherosclerosis
  148. What is atherosclerosis?
    a buildup of plaque in an artery
  149. List the three functions of the lymphatic system.
    • to collect, filter, and transport back to the blood excess interstitial fluid
    • to transport absorbed fats from the digestive system to the blood
    • to help provide immunological defenses
  150. What lymphatic vessels collect interstitial fluid?
    lymphatic capillaries
  151. What is the fluid within lymphatic vessels?
    lymph
  152. What vessel collect lymph from the lower extremities, the abdominopelvic cavity, the left upper
    extremity, and the left side of the thorax, the neck, and the head?
    the thoracic duct
  153. What lymphatic vessel drains lymph from the right side of the thorax, head, and neck, and the right upper extremity?
    the right lymphatic duct
  154. Into what vessels do the thoracic duct and the right lymphatic duct return lymph to the blood?
    the left and right subclavian veins
  155. What structures filter lymph?
    lymph nodes
  156. List the lymphoid organs.
    • tonsils
    • thymus
    • spleen

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