Human Physiology 15

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NursyDaisy
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100785
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Human Physiology 15
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2011-10-11 23:36:29
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Human Physiology
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The Immune System
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  1. What system of the body includes all the structures and mechanisms that provide a defense against potential pathogens?
    the immune system
  2. What are the two main categories of defenses within the immune system?
    • innate (nonspecific) immunity
    • adaptive (specific) immunity
  3. What type of immunity is inherited to act against the broad categories of pathogens but not specific one?
    innate (nonspecific)
  4. What type of immunity protects an organism against specific pathogens?
    adaptive (specific)
  5. What type of nonspecific immune defense is made of physical structures that prevent pathogens from invading an organism?
    barriers
  6. What are two types of barriers?
    skin and mucous membranes
  7. How does the innate immune system distinguish between self and invading pathogens?
    by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
  8. What are chemical signals produced by cells of the immune system to recruit other cells of the immune cells?
    cytokines
  9. What are the three major groups of phagocytic cells?
    • neutrophils
    • mononuclear phagocyte system cells
    • organ-specific cells
  10. What is the term for phagocytic cells fixed and immobile inside of the liver, spleen, and lymph
    nodes?
    fixed phagocytes
  11. What phagocytes are the first to arrive at the site of an invasion of pathogens?
    neutrophils
  12. What phagocytic cells arrive at a site of pathogenic invasion after neutrophils?
    moncytes
  13. Monocytes transform into what type of cells?
    macrophages
  14. How do phagocytic cells travel from blood vessels to sites of infection?
    ameboid-like movement
  15. What cytokine is released by leukocytes and the brain to produce fever?
    endogenous pyrogen
  16. What may be the adaptive value of a fever?
    It may inhibit the growth of bacteria and increase the activity of neutrophils and increase the production of interferon.
  17. What are substances released by cells infected with a virus in order to inhibit the ability of a virus to replicate within other cells?
    interferons
  18. What are proteins that attach to antigens as a part of an immune response?
    antibodies
  19. What are molecules (usually proteins or carbohydrates) that stimulate the production of antibodies?
    antigens
  20. What are the specific portions of antigens that stimulate antibody production and combine with
    antibodies?
    antigenic determinant sites
  21. What are small, organic molecules that are not antigenic by themselves, but which can become
    antigens if they bind to proteins?
    haptens
  22. What are tests in which the binding of antigens to antibodies can be detected through visible agglutination?
    immunoassays
  23. What type of leukocyte matures in the thymus and is involved in cell-mediated immunity?
    T cells (lymphocytes)
  24. What type of leukocyte is processed in the bone marrow and is involved in antibody-mediated
    immunity?
    B cells (lymphocytes)
  25. What are the two primary lymphoid organs?
    bone marrow and the thymus
  26. What are the four secondary lymphoid organs?
    • the lymph nodes
    • spleen
    • tonsils
    • Peyer's patches
  27. During a local inflammation what initiates the reaction?
    phagocytosis and complement activation
  28. What is the role of histamine in a local inflammation?
    • Histamine relaxes vascular smooth muscle thus increase blood flow into the area. It also increases
    • capillary permeability
  29. What are the characteristics of a local inflammation?
    • redness
    • warmth
    • swelling
    • pus
    • pain
  30. A B cell stimulated by an antigen divides into what two types of cells?
    • memory cells
    • plasma cells
  31. What type of activated B cell produces antibodies?
    a plasma cell
  32. What type of B cells are produced by activated B cells to live on and keep an organism prepared for
    an infection by the same antigen at a later time?
    memory cells
  33. What is the general shape of an antibody?
    Y-shaped
  34. The four protein chains of an antibody are of what two types?
    heavy chains (2) and light chains (2)
  35. An antibody has two general regions. What region does not interact with the antigen and is common
    within a particular category of antibody?
    the constant region
  36. An antibody has two general regions. What region interacts directly with an antigen?
    the variable region
  37. The specific antibody a B cell produces, even before activation of the cell, serves what function?
    a receptor
  38. What are the three results of antibodies attaching to a pathogen?
    • They increase the activity of phagocytes.
    • They promote the activation of the complement. They precipitate antigens out of solution.
  39. What is the series of proteins which act as nonspecific immune mechanism to create holes in the cell walls of bacteria? They are produced by the liver.
    Complement
  40. What type of T cell functions to destroy cells that harbor foreign molecules?
    killer (cytotoxic) T cells
  41. What type of mechanism do killer T cells use to destroy victim cells?
    cell-mediated
  42. What two molecules are released by killer T cells to destroy other cells?
    perforins and granzymes
  43. How do perforins bring about the destruction of cells?
    They enter the plasma membrane to form large pores
  44. What is the role of granzymes?
    They enter the victim cell and activate caspases which destroy the cell's DNA
  45. Killer T cells are involved in the destruction of what type of cells and pathogens?
    viruses, fungi, cancer, and some bacteria
  46. What is the function of helper T cells?
    They enhance the immune response
  47. What is the effect of helper T cells on B cells?
    • They improve the ability of B lymphocytes to differentiate into plasma cells and secrete specific
    • antibodies
  48. What is the effect of helper T cells on killer T cells?
    They enhance the ability of killer T cells to function in cell-mediated immunity.
  49. What type of chemical regulators do helper T cells use to enhance the function of the immune system?
    lymphokines
  50. What type of T cells inhibits the activity of B cells and killer T cells?
    regulatory (suppressor) T cells
  51. The proper function of Treg cells guards against what two potential problems with the immune system?
    allergies and autoimmune diseases
  52. What are polypeptides that are classified within any of the classes of immunoregulatory proteins (as interleukin, tumor necrosis factor, and interferon) that are secreted by cells especially of the immune
    system?
    cytokines
  53. What are cytokines produced by lymphocytes?
    lymphokines
  54. T cell receptors cannot bind to a free antigen and thus cannot react to them. How must antigens be presented to them?
    on the membranes of antigen-presenting cells
  55. With the exception of RBCs, how are all cells in the body labeled?
    with histocompatibilty antigens on the cell membrane's surface
  56. What term refers to histocompatibility antigens in humans?
    human leukocyte antigens (HLAs)
  57. What are the two major antigen-presenting cells that interact with T cells?
    macrophages and dendritic cells
  58. From what type of WBC are macrophages and dendritic cells derived?
    monocytes
  59. What group of four genes located on chromosome 6 determines the histocompatibility antigens of an
    individual?
    the major histocompatibility complex
  60. When a macrophage or dendritic cell phagocytisizes a pathogen, what does it then do?
    • It partially digests it and combines the pathogen's antigens with class 2 MHC molecules on its cell
    • membrane to present them to T cells
  61. In addition to the presentation of an antigen combined with a MHC molecule, how does a macrophage stimulate helper T cells?
    with a cytokine
  62. Helper T cells are stimulated by macrophages. How do T cells, in turn, stimulate macrophages?
    With lymphokines
  63. In order for killer T cells to destroy infected cells, what must the infected cells do?
    display the foreign antigen with their class-1 MHC molecules
  64. In addition to releasing lymphokines, how do helper T cells stimulate B cells?
    • The activated helper T cell must interact with the foreign antigen presented by the B cell along with
    • the B cells class-2 MHC molecule
  65. After an infection clears what happens to activated T cells?
    They undergo apoptosis
  66. What triggers the apoptosis of activated T cells after an infection ends?
    • T cells put a recptor, FAS, on their membranes and later release FAS ligand which interacts with the
    • receptor to bring about apoptosis
  67. When a person is first exposed to a particular pathogen there is a sluggish response period of 5 to 10 days before a measurable rise in antibodies against that pathogen. What is the reaction called?
    the primary response
  68. After an initial exposure to a pathogen, subsequent exposures result in very rapid increase in antibody production and prevent symptoms from developing. What is this reaction called?
    the secondary response
  69. What theory explains the primary and secondary responses seen in an immune reaction?
    the clonal selection theory
  70. What type of B cell produces antibodies?
    plasma cells
  71. What is a long-lived lymphocyte that carries the antibody or receptor for a specific antigen after a
    first exposure to the antigen and that remains in a less than mature state until stimulated by a second
    exposure to the antigen at which time it mounts a more effective immune response than a cell which
    has not been exposed previously?
    a memory cell
  72. What are the locations developed from stimulated B cells undergoing rapid division?
    germinal centers
  73. What organs contain germinal centers?
    secondary lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, Pyerís patches)
  74. What type of immunity develops in response to expose to an antigen and the subsequent development of a secondary response?
    active immunity
  75. What substances are used to bring about the development of an active immunity without developing symptoms of a disease during the primary response?
    vaccines
  76. What two types of pathogens are used as vaccines? These expose the patient to the antigen, but do
    not result in the development of symptoms.
    • attenuated or destroyed
    • antigenically similar
  77. What term refers to antigens created by one organism and exposed to another?
    non-self (foreign)
  78. What term refers to antigens created by an organism?
    self-antigens
  79. When is the ability to distinguish between non-self and self-antigens developed?
    in the first month or so of postnatal life
  80. What are antibodies that attach to self-antigens?
    autoantibodies
  81. What are T cells that attack self-antigens?
    autoreactive T cells
  82. What mechanism that may account for the development of immunological tolerance involves the destruction of the lymphocytes that recognize self-antigens?
    clonal deletion
  83. What mechanism that may account for the development of immunological tolerance involves the presence of lymphocytes directed against self-antigens throughout life, but which do not attack those antigens?
    clonal anergy
  84. What two theories may account for immunological tolerance?
    the clonal deletion theory -the clonal anergy theory
  85. What type of T cells is believed to play an important role in immunological tolerance?
    Treg cells
  86. What term refers to the immune protection that can be produced by the transfer of antibodies to a recipient from a human or animal donor?
    passive immunity
  87. What are three ways in which passive immunity may be given?
    • across the placenta
    • breast-feeding
    • injection
  88. What are commercially produced antibodies that are specific for only one antigenic determinant site?
    monoclonal antibodies
  89. In addition to passive immunity, what are three other uses of commercially produced antibodies?
    research -laboratory testing -therapy
  90. What is the study of tumors?
    oncology
  91. What are tumors that grow slowly and are limited to specific locations?
    benign
  92. What term refers to tumors that are growing rapidly and have the ability to spread throughout the body?
    malignant
  93. What is a change of position, state, or form, as a transfer of a disease-producing agency (as cancer
    cells or bacteria) from an original site of disease to another part of the body with development of a
    similar lesion in the new location?
    metastasis
  94. What term refers to malignant tumors?
    cancer
  95. What process do cancer cells undergo which takes away their specialization and the antigens that are
    not normally present postnatally?
    dediffereniation
  96. What process may occur in which the body constantly searches for cancer cells and destroys them if they occur?
    immunological surveillance
  97. What type of lymphocyte is a part of the innate immune system and destroys viruses, bacteria, parasites, and cancer cells through cell-to-cell contact?
    natural killer cells
  98. What substances do natural killer cells use to destroy their targets?
    perforins and granzymes
  99. What type of cancer treatments involves the use of such things as inferons and interleukins and T
    lymphocytes?
    immunotherapy
  100. What two factors relating to the activity of the immune system may account for the increase in
    the incidence of cancer later in life?
    • a regression of the thymus
    • an accumulation o f genetic errors in aging lymphocytes
  101. How might stress be related to cancer?
    Stress causes immunosuppression
  102. List three categories of diseases caused not by pathogens but by abnormal responses of the immune system.
    • autoimmune diseases
    • immune complex diseases
    • allergies (hypersensitivity)
  103. What type of diseases is caused by the failure of the immune system to recognize and tolerate self-antigens?
    autoimmune diseases
  104. Rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, Grave's disease, glomerulonephritis, thyroiditis, pernicious anemia, psoriasis, and systemic lupus erythematosus are examples of what type of disease?
    autoimmune disease
  105. What type of diseases result in inflammation due to free antigen-antibody complexes that are not attached to bacterial or other cells?
    immune complex diseases
  106. What term refers to abnormal immune responses to substances that do not normally act as antigens?
    allergies (hypersensitivities)
  107. What type of allergy involves abnormal B cell response to an allergen that produces symptoms within seconds or minutes?
    immediate hypersensitivity
  108. What type of allergy involves an abnormal T cell response that produces symptoms between 24 and 72 hours after exposure to an allergen?
    delayed hypersensitivity

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