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What is the endocrine function of the male testes?
What is the exocrine function of the male testes?
Produce and expel sperm
What part of the reproductive system is operated on during a vasectomy?
What is the normal pH of sperm? Basic or acidic?
- To counter the acidity of the vagina
During circumcision, what part of the penis is removed? (medical term for foreskin)
Occurs the moment that generic material of a sperm combines with that of an ovum to form a fertilized egg (zygote)
Where does fertilization occur?
the ejection of an egg from the ovary
Name the three layers of the uterine wall from inner to outer
body of the uterus
major portion of the uterus
fundus of the uterus
superior region above the entrance of the uterine tubes
cervix of the uterus
narrow outlet, protruding into the vagina
Cyclic changes that the endometrium goes through month after month in response to hormonal changes
proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle
- endometrial blood supply increases
- endometrium thickens again
Secretory phase of the menstrual cycle
- If fertilization occurs, perfect environment to nourish
- If fertilization does not occur, sets the stage for menses
embryo (time period)
from fertilization until week 8
fetus (time period)
from week 9 until birth
How long can the egg survive in order for the conception to take place?
- fertilized egg
- first cell of the new individual
All body systems are present in an embryo by what week?
Why do pregnant women have a higher incidence of lower back pain other than the gravid abdomen size?
Relaxin causes all ligaments to relax, and become more flexible
What hormone initiates labor?
What are the three stages of labor?
Dilation stage (of labor) - events
- contractions push baby against cervix
- cervix softens, and effaces (thins)
- amnionic sac ruptures
- lasts 6-12 hours
Expulsion stage (of labor) - events
- from full dilation to delivery
- urge to push
- typically 50 minutes (can be 20 min - 2 hrs)
Placental stage (of labor) - events
- about 15 minutes after birth
- placenta and fetal membranes detach from uterus
ovulation and cessation of menses
What defines menopause?
- Between ages of 46 and 54
- Menses has ceased for a year
Does the process of ejaculation and urination occur at the same time?
What is BPH? (male)
- Increased size of the prostate gland
- Strangles the urethra
- Increases risks of infection
- Makes urination difficult
What is primary follicle made of? (female)
- Contains an immature ovum (egg)
- Egg surrounded by layers of follicle cells
Epididymus (male reproductive tract)
temporary storage site for sperm
Ductus (vas) deferens (male reproductive tract)
- from epididymus to the ejaculatory duct
- Functions to propel sperm into the urethra
- from base of bladder to tip of penis
- carries both urine and semen
Three regions of the male urethra from bladder the tip of penis
- prostatic urethra
- membraneous urethra
- spongy urethra
region of the urethra surrounded by the prostate gland
Membraneous urethra (male)
region of the urethra from prostatic urethra to the penis
Spongy (penile) urethra
- Region of the urethra running within the length of the penis
- Opens to the exterior of the body
- a devided sac of skin hanging outside of the body
- houses the testes
What is the function of the scrotum?
to keep the testes at about 3o C cooler than the body
Glans penis (of the penis)
enlarged tip of the penis
prepuce (of the penis)
- primary female reproductive organs
- endocrine and exocrine
Uterine (fallopian) tubes
- for the initial part of the duct system
- receives the ovulated oocyte and provides site for fertilization
Hollow organ that functions to receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized egg
- thin walled tube 8-10cm long
- provide passageway for delivery of infant and menses
- Receives the penis (& semen)
external genitalia en masse
Mons pubis (female)
- fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis
- covered in pubic hair after puberty
Labia majora (female)
- Hair covered skin folds
- enclose the labia minora
- encloses the vestibule
Labia majora (female)
delicate, hair-free folds of skin
- Enclosed by labia majora
- Contains ecternal openings of the urethra and vagina
Greater vestibular glands (female)
- one is found on each side of the vagina
- Secretes lubricant during intercourse
- contains erectile tissue
- corresponds to the male penis
In what three ways is does is the clitoris similar to the penis?
- Hooded by prepuce
- Composed of sensitive erectile tissue
- Becomes swollen with blood during sexual excitement