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"Even though a theory might sound plausible, we can't be sure it's valid until it's been tested. In science, theory and research walk hand in hand."
- Describe human conduct as occurring because of forces outside the individual's awareness.
- Describe behavior as the response to a prior stimulus.
- A scholar who applies the scientific method to describe, predict and explain recurring forms of human behavior
- Training in empirical research
- Conducts experiments
- use textual analysis and ethnography
- Human choice is problematic for the behavioral scientist because as individual freedom goes up, predictability of behavior goes down.
- A scholar who studies the ways in which symbolic forms can be used to identify with people, or to persuade them toward a certain point of view.
- Trained in rhetorical theory and criticism
- Interprets texts
- Objective Scholars believe they can discover the one reality that exists.(main difference between objective and interpretive scholars)
- Social Scientist
- Assumes truth is singular and accessible through unbiased observation
- Uncovers cause-and-effect relationships
- Uses surveys, experiments and quantitative data to predict and explain
- Testable hypothesis
- Practicle utility
- The liguistic work of assigning meaning or value to communicative texts; assumes that multiple meanings or truths are possible.
- Describe and understand human behavior
- "Free will is ever changing"
- Include rhetoricians, humanists, postmodernits or critical scholars
- Tend to use explanatory phrases such as in order to and so that because they attribute a person's action to sonscious intent.
Burke's dramatistic pentad
- A five pronged method of rhetorical criticism to analyze a speaker's persuasive strategy--
- Act, Scene, Agent, Agency, Purpose
- Can help to provide a framework for interpreting a developing drama . The symbolic action moves through different stages.
Source Credibility Theory
Carl Hovland & Walter Weiss
- Source credibility refers to the audience perception of the competence and trust-worthiness of a speaker or writer.
- Perceived competence and trustworthiness of a speaker or writer that affects how the message is received.
- Theory suggests that expertise and trustworthiness are the two main ingredients of perceived credibility.
Theory of opinion
When people forge a bond of identification with a highly attractive figure, they will gladly embrace his persuasive pitch.
A perceived role relationship that affects self-image and attitudes; based on attractiveness of the role model and sustained if the relationship remains salient.
Describe, understand, critique and offer ways to reform communication.
Did you measure what you intended to measure?
Consistent findings every time you run a study
- Study of what it is like to be another person in a specific time and place
- Do interpretive analysis, scholarship concerned with meaning
- The roots of humanism are threatened by a hightly retricted view of choice.
- The search for knowledge
- The study of the origin, nature, method, and limits of knowledge
- Scientists assume that Truth is singular, not dependent on local conditions.
- The assumption that behavior is caused by heredity and environment "Biology is Destiny"& Environment "pleasure stamps in, pain stamps out"
- Debate the question of human choice
Data collected through direct observation
- Assumptions about human communications
- assumptions should be noted w/in your report. Bias should be reported.
Scholars who use theory to reveal unjust communication practices that create or perpetuate an imbalance of power.
- Scientists favor quantifiable experiments and surveys.
- through experiments, scientists seek to establish a cause and effect relationship by manipulating an independent variable in a tightly controlled situation in order to detemine its effecct on a dependent variable. Results are measured.
- Surveys rely on self reported data to discover who people are and what they think, feel and intend to do.
- It is difficult to support cause and effect relations with surveys, but survey data more closely resembles "real life" than experimentation does.
Qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the meaning people bring to them.
Hunches about how the world works and can be tested, temporarily comits researchers to a specific prediction.