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What is science?
Body of knowledge
What is biology
Study of living organisms
What is the scientific method?
A way that scientists prove or disprove hypothesis
What are the 4 steps to the scientific method?
- 1. Observe
- 2. hypothesis
- 3. Test theory
- 4. discard or modify deas in response to results
What is scientific theory?
An idea with scientific basis to back it up - has proof
What is inductive reasoning?
Combining a series of specific observations to discern a general principle.
What is deductive reasoning?
If/then statements, based on predictions.
What we expect to happen
What is an alternative hypotheses?
Other reasongs that a prediction could be true other than the original hypotheses.
Define scientific truth
What we know and understand based on currently available information.
Explain the difference between independent and dependent variables.
- Independent - the value can be freely changed
- dependent - can't be changed by researchers.
What are the three conditions of the gold standard type of research?
- Double blind
- placebo controlled
- randomly assigned
Define positive correlation
information that agrees with the hypotheses
When charting experiemental data, the indpendent variable goes on what axis?
Define statistically significant
the result is unlikely to be due to chance difference between groups
What is sampling error?
the difference between the sample and the population from which it was drawn.
List 4 items you should consider when evaluating a scientific claim.
- Source - is it reputable
- where does the money come from - who is subsidizing
- are there references
- is it peer reviewed.
List the 10 ideas of attributes found in most earthly life forms.
- 1. Growth
- 2. Movement
- 3. evolves
- 4. Common set of biological molecules
- 5. requires liquid
- 6. Maintains homeostasis
- 7. responds to external stimuli
- 8. reproduces
- 9. composed of cells
- 10. metabolism
smallest units that have the properties of the given element
Define solute and solvent
- Solute - the substance dissolved in a solution
- solvent - the substance a solute is dissolved in
Define reactant and products
- reactant - solutes in a mixture
- products - the molecule formed as a result of chemical reaction
Why is water a good solvent?
It can dissolve bases and acids, is polar, ph is neutral.
Why is water essential to life?
- 1. cohesiveness of hydrogen bond
- 2. Changes temperature slowly
- 3. has neutral PH
- 4. has the ability to dissolve substances
What are the three types of chemical bonds?
Define PH scale
A measure of hydrogen ion concentrating ranging from 0 to 14
Why is ph important to the body?
It regulates functions - helps maintain homeostasis so proteins function properly
What happens in an ionic bond?
Electron from one molecule jumps to another
What happens in a covalent bond?
electrons are shared - is the strongest bond
Which groups of atoms do which groups of bonds?
- 4 -5 electrons in covalent shell - covalent
- 1,2,3,6,7 - ionic
Any of the large molecules composed of subunits joined by dehydration synthesis
What are the 4 macromolecules and what are they composed of?
- Carbohydrates - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
- lipds - fats, steroids, phospholipds
- proteins - amino acids, nitrogen
- nucleic acids - nucleotides, phosphate base, sugar
What is the most abundant carbohydrate and where is it found?
polysacchride - cellulose - found in plant cell walss
List 3 functions of proteins
- 1. building blocks of cells
- 2. transport
- 3. send chemical messages
What is an enzyme?
a protein that catalyzes and regulates the rate of metabolic reaction
List 3 types of lipids
- 1. fats
- 2. steroids
- 3. phospholipids
What is complimentary (base pairing) and which bases pair up?
- Nitrogenous bases that hydrogen bond to each other
- adenine and thymine
- cystosine and guarine
What chemical bonds are between the bases? between the backbone of DNA?
Who is credited for the DNA model?
Watson and Crick
atomic weight and atomic number
- atomic weight = protons + neutrons
- atomic number = number of protons
What is a cell?
The basic unit of life
The outer cell wall- regulates what goes in and out
Center of cell, contains DNA
Bag of digestive juices - cleans up non-functioning cells
manufactures energy - photosynthesis - turns sunlight into starches in plants
synthesizes proteins, contain ribosomes
sorts and packages lipids and proteins
involved in microtubal formation during cell division
gives shape and structure to cells, binds together organelles.
creates energy, cellular respiration
cytoplasm or cytosol
gel substance inside cell
inside the nucleus - makes ribosomes
substance in foods that provides structural material or energy
- in large amounts
- they build or give energy
how much water do humans lose per day and how much is replaced by food eated?
Where is energy stored in carbohydrates?
In the chemical bonds between the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
What is a complex carbohydrate?
Has many different chains of sugar monomer - bread, pasta, legumes
What is glycogen and where is it stored?
- It is complex carbs, short term storage,
- stored in the muscles and liver
what is dietary fiber?
roughage from complex carbs that the body can't digest - cellulose
what to proteins break down into
what are essential amino acids?
The ones our bodies can't make
how many grams in
What are essential fatty acids and give examples
ones we can't make ourselves, omega 3 and omega 6
Differentiate saturated vs unsaturated fat
- Saturated is completely bonded to hydrgen and solid at room temperate
- unsaturated not solid at room temperature
hydrogen gas added to vegetable oil under pressure
define trans fat
artifically produced fat
what are micronutrients - examples
- vitamins and minerals
- they are not burned for energy
what is a coenzyme and an example?
- molecules that help enzymes - they speed up the body's chemical reactions -
What is a mineral?
Contains no carbon, essential for functions - inorganic, needed for fluid balance
What is the only vitamin your body can synthesize?
Which vitamins are fat soluable?
ADEK - taking too much of these is not good for your body, they are not excreted readily
List 5 facts about water-soluable vitamins and which ones are they?
- 1. small organic molecules
- 2. will dissolve in water
- 3. can't be synthesized by body
- 4. in pressed tablet form
- 5. body does not store, not a problem to take excess
- B vitamins, folic acid, biotin, C, Niacin, Pantothenic acid
List 5 facts about fat-soluable vitamins and which ones are they:
- 1. small organic molecules
- 2. won't dissolve in water
- 3. can't be synthesized by body (except D)
- 4. Oily gel cap form
- 5. not excreted
List 4 facts about minerals and which ones do we need?
- 1. Will dissolve in water
- 2. Inorganic elements - no carbon
- 3. can't be synthesized by body
- 4. packaged as pressed tablets
What is an antioxident?
molecules that protect the body from free radicals
Which foods contain antioxidents?
fruits, vegetables, nuts, grains, some meats
List the 8 anti-oxidents from the book
- vitamins A, C, E
What is metabolism?
All chemical reactions that occur in the body
What is an enzyme?
proteins that help metabolize food
Why does heat speed up chemical reactions?
Heating cells will damage or kill them and obsorb energy
What is activation energy?
The energy that is required to start a metabolic reaction
chemicals that are metabolized by enzyme-catalyzed reaction
Define active site
a region of the enzyme where substrate binds
the amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree C
Define metabolic rate
measure of a person's energy use
basal metabolic rate
how many calories you burn at rest
What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate- cell's energy currency
Define passive transport and why is it necessary?
When substances diffuse across plasma membrane without use of energy
Define simple diffusion and what molecules do this
cells go from area of high concentration to low concentration to equalize the molecules - CO2, o2, h2o
Define facilitated diffusion and what molecules do this
transport by proteins in lipid bylayers - calcium, sugars, amino acids
water moving across cell membrane - passive transport
Define and give examples of active transport
uses proteins powered by ATP - potassium requires this
Define exocytosis and endocytosis
- Exocytosis - the way things are removed from a cell using vesicles
- Endocytosis - taking things into a cell by pinching inward of the plasma membrane
What things are fats broken down and used for?
What is a healthy body fat range for men and women?
What is a normal blood pressure
What is systolic and diastolic
- Systolic - force of the blood on artery walls when heart is contracting
- Diastolic - the pressure of the blood when the heart is relaxed.
What is the difference between HDL and LDL?
- LDL carries cholesterol to cells,
- HDL scavenges for excess cholesterol
Cholesterol lined blood vessels