Human Biology 1-3

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Human Biology 1-3
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2011-09-10 20:47:58
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Human Biology Flashcards
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  1. What is science?
    Body of knowledge
  2. What is biology
    Study of living organisms
  3. What is the scientific method?
    A way that scientists prove or disprove hypothesis
  4. What are the 4 steps to the scientific method?
    • 1. Observe
    • 2. hypothesis
    • 3. Test theory
    • 4. discard or modify deas in response to results
  5. What is scientific theory?
    An idea with scientific basis to back it up - has proof
  6. What is inductive reasoning?
    Combining a series of specific observations to discern a general principle.
  7. What is deductive reasoning?
    If/then statements, based on predictions.
  8. Define prediction.
    What we expect to happen
  9. What is an alternative hypotheses?
    Other reasongs that a prediction could be true other than the original hypotheses.
  10. Define scientific truth
    What we know and understand based on currently available information.
  11. Explain the difference between independent and dependent variables.
    • Independent - the value can be freely changed
    • dependent - can't be changed by researchers.
  12. What are the three conditions of the gold standard type of research?
    • Double blind
    • placebo controlled
    • randomly assigned
  13. Define positive correlation
    information that agrees with the hypotheses
  14. When charting experiemental data, the indpendent variable goes on what axis?
    X
  15. Define statistically significant
    the result is unlikely to be due to chance difference between groups
  16. What is sampling error?
    the difference between the sample and the population from which it was drawn.
  17. List 4 items you should consider when evaluating a scientific claim.
    • Source - is it reputable
    • where does the money come from - who is subsidizing
    • are there references
    • is it peer reviewed.
  18. List the 10 ideas of attributes found in most earthly life forms.
    • 1. Growth
    • 2. Movement
    • 3. evolves
    • 4. Common set of biological molecules
    • 5. requires liquid
    • 6. Maintains homeostasis
    • 7. responds to external stimuli
    • 8. reproduces
    • 9. composed of cells
    • 10. metabolism
  19. Define atom
    smallest units that have the properties of the given element
  20. Define solute and solvent
    • Solute - the substance dissolved in a solution
    • solvent - the substance a solute is dissolved in
  21. Define reactant and products
    • reactant - solutes in a mixture
    • products - the molecule formed as a result of chemical reaction
  22. Why is water a good solvent?
    It can dissolve bases and acids, is polar, ph is neutral.
  23. Why is water essential to life?
    • 1. cohesiveness of hydrogen bond
    • 2. Changes temperature slowly
    • 3. has neutral PH
    • 4. has the ability to dissolve substances
  24. What are the three types of chemical bonds?
    • Ionic
    • Covalent
    • Hydrogen
  25. Define PH scale
    A measure of hydrogen ion concentrating ranging from 0 to 14
  26. Why is ph important to the body?
    It regulates functions - helps maintain homeostasis so proteins function properly
  27. What happens in an ionic bond?
    Electron from one molecule jumps to another
  28. What happens in a covalent bond?
    electrons are shared - is the strongest bond
  29. Which groups of atoms do which groups of bonds?
    • 4 -5 electrons in covalent shell - covalent
    • 1,2,3,6,7 - ionic
  30. Macromolecule
    Any of the large molecules composed of subunits joined by dehydration synthesis
  31. What are the 4 macromolecules and what are they composed of?
    • Carbohydrates - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
    • lipds - fats, steroids, phospholipds
    • proteins - amino acids, nitrogen
    • nucleic acids - nucleotides, phosphate base, sugar
  32. What is the most abundant carbohydrate and where is it found?
    polysacchride - cellulose - found in plant cell walss
  33. List 3 functions of proteins
    • 1. building blocks of cells
    • 2. transport
    • 3. send chemical messages
  34. What is an enzyme?
    a protein that catalyzes and regulates the rate of metabolic reaction
  35. List 3 types of lipids
    • 1. fats
    • 2. steroids
    • 3. phospholipids
  36. What is complimentary (base pairing) and which bases pair up?
    • Nitrogenous bases that hydrogen bond to each other
    • adenine and thymine
    • cystosine and guarine
  37. What chemical bonds are between the bases? between the backbone of DNA?
    • hydrogen
    • covalent
  38. Who is credited for the DNA model?
    Watson and Crick
  39. atomic weight and atomic number
    • atomic weight = protons + neutrons
    • atomic number = number of protons
  40. What is a cell?
    The basic unit of life
  41. plasma membrane
    The outer cell wall- regulates what goes in and out
  42. Nucleus
    Center of cell, contains DNA
  43. Lysosome
    Bag of digestive juices - cleans up non-functioning cells
  44. chloroplast
    manufactures energy - photosynthesis - turns sunlight into starches in plants
  45. ribosomes
    protein synthesis
  46. rough ER
    synthesizes proteins, contain ribosomes
  47. Golgi apparatus
    sorts and packages lipids and proteins
  48. Centrioles
    involved in microtubal formation during cell division
  49. cytoskeleton
    gives shape and structure to cells, binds together organelles.
  50. mitochondrion
    creates energy, cellular respiration
  51. smooth ER
    synthesizes lipds
  52. cytoplasm or cytosol
    gel substance inside cell
  53. nucleolus
    inside the nucleus - makes ribosomes
  54. Define Nutrients
    substance in foods that provides structural material or energy
  55. define macronutrient
    • in large amounts
    • carbs
    • proteins
    • lipids
    • they build or give energy
  56. how much water do humans lose per day and how much is replaced by food eated?
    • 3 liters
    • 1.5 liters
  57. Where is energy stored in carbohydrates?
    In the chemical bonds between the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
  58. What is a complex carbohydrate?
    Has many different chains of sugar monomer - bread, pasta, legumes
  59. What is glycogen and where is it stored?
    • It is complex carbs, short term storage,
    • stored in the muscles and liver
  60. what is dietary fiber?
    roughage from complex carbs that the body can't digest - cellulose
  61. what to proteins break down into
    amino acids
  62. what are essential amino acids?
    The ones our bodies can't make
  63. how many grams in
    protein
    fat
    carb
    alcohol
    • 4
    • 9
    • 4
    • 7
  64. What are essential fatty acids and give examples
    ones we can't make ourselves, omega 3 and omega 6
  65. Differentiate saturated vs unsaturated fat
    • Saturated is completely bonded to hydrgen and solid at room temperate
    • unsaturated not solid at room temperature
  66. define hydrogenation
    hydrogen gas added to vegetable oil under pressure
  67. define trans fat
    artifically produced fat
  68. what are micronutrients - examples
    • vitamins and minerals
    • they are not burned for energy
  69. what is a coenzyme and an example?
    • molecules that help enzymes - they speed up the body's chemical reactions -
    • vitamins
  70. What is a mineral?
    Contains no carbon, essential for functions - inorganic, needed for fluid balance
  71. What is the only vitamin your body can synthesize?
    D
  72. Which vitamins are fat soluable?
    ADEK - taking too much of these is not good for your body, they are not excreted readily
  73. List 5 facts about water-soluable vitamins and which ones are they?
    • 1. small organic molecules
    • 2. will dissolve in water
    • 3. can't be synthesized by body
    • 4. in pressed tablet form
    • 5. body does not store, not a problem to take excess
    • B vitamins, folic acid, biotin, C, Niacin, Pantothenic acid
  74. List 5 facts about fat-soluable vitamins and which ones are they:
    • 1. small organic molecules
    • 2. won't dissolve in water
    • 3. can't be synthesized by body (except D)
    • 4. Oily gel cap form
    • 5. not excreted
    • ADEK
  75. List 4 facts about minerals and which ones do we need?
    • 1. Will dissolve in water
    • 2. Inorganic elements - no carbon
    • 3. can't be synthesized by body
    • 4. packaged as pressed tablets
    • calcium
    • chloride
    • magnesium
    • phosphorus
    • potassium
    • sodium
    • sulfur
  76. What is an antioxident?
    molecules that protect the body from free radicals
  77. Which foods contain antioxidents?
    fruits, vegetables, nuts, grains, some meats
  78. List the 8 anti-oxidents from the book
    • beta-carotene
    • flavenoid
    • lutein
    • lycopene
    • selenium
    • vitamins A, C, E
  79. What is metabolism?
    All chemical reactions that occur in the body
  80. What is an enzyme?
    proteins that help metabolize food
  81. Why does heat speed up chemical reactions?
    Heating cells will damage or kill them and obsorb energy
  82. What is activation energy?
    The energy that is required to start a metabolic reaction
  83. Define substrate
    chemicals that are metabolized by enzyme-catalyzed reaction
  84. Define active site
    a region of the enzyme where substrate binds
  85. Define calorie
    the amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree C
  86. Define metabolic rate
    measure of a person's energy use
  87. basal metabolic rate
    how many calories you burn at rest
  88. What is ATP?
    Adenosine triphosphate- cell's energy currency
  89. Define passive transport and why is it necessary?
    When substances diffuse across plasma membrane without use of energy
  90. Define simple diffusion and what molecules do this
    cells go from area of high concentration to low concentration to equalize the molecules - CO2, o2, h2o
  91. Define facilitated diffusion and what molecules do this
    transport by proteins in lipid bylayers - calcium, sugars, amino acids
  92. Define osmosis
    water moving across cell membrane - passive transport
  93. Define and give examples of active transport
    uses proteins powered by ATP - potassium requires this
  94. Define exocytosis and endocytosis
    • Exocytosis - the way things are removed from a cell using vesicles
    • Endocytosis - taking things into a cell by pinching inward of the plasma membrane
  95. What things are fats broken down and used for?
    • energy
    • storage
    • hormones
  96. What is a healthy body fat range for men and women?
    20-25%
  97. What is a normal blood pressure
    120/80
  98. What is systolic and diastolic
    • Systolic - force of the blood on artery walls when heart is contracting
    • Diastolic - the pressure of the blood when the heart is relaxed.
  99. What is the difference between HDL and LDL?
    • LDL carries cholesterol to cells,
    • HDL scavenges for excess cholesterol
  100. Define artherosclerosis
    Cholesterol lined blood vessels

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