An equation to solve genetic problems involving two types of unordered events
Chi square test
A commonly used statistical method to determine the goodness of fit. Useful for evaluating the outcome of genetic crosses
Degrees of freedom
In a statistical analysis, the number of categories that are independent of each other.
A cross in which an experimenter crosses and individual that is heterozygous for two genes to an individual that is homozygous recessive for the same two genes.
Describes an allele that determines the phenotype in the heterozygous condition. For example, if a plant is Tt and has a tall phenotype, the tall allele (T)is dominant over the dwarf allele (t).
Also known as an ovum; it is a female gamete that is usually very large and nonmotile.
A strategy in which experiments are designed to determine quantitative relationships as a way to derive laws that govern biological, chemical, or physical phenomena.
laws that are discovered using an empirical observational approach
the union of gametes to begin the life of a new organism
same meaning as cross. it requires that the male and female gametes come from separate individuals.
a method to solve independent assortment problems in which lines are drawn to connect particular genotypes
a reproductive cell (usually haploid) that can unite with another reproductive cell to create a zygote, sperm and egg cells are types of gametes
the offspring produced from a cross of the parental generation
the offspring produced from a cross of the F1 generation
Parental (P) generation
In a genetic cross, the first generation in the experiment. In Mendel's studies, the parental generation was true-breeding with regard to particular traits.
the genetic composition of an individual, especially in terms of the alleles for particular genes
Goodness of fit
the degree to which the observed data and expected data are similar to each other. If the observed and predicted data are very similar, the goodness of fit is high
Describes a diploid individual who has different copies (ie. two different alleles) of the same gene.
Describes a diploid individual who has two identical alleles of a particular gene.
1. The mating of two organisms of the same species with different characteristics. 2. The phenomenon in which two single-stranded molecules renature together to form a hybrid molecule.
A cell produced from the fusion experiment in which the two separate nuclei have fused to make a single nuclei.
Using statistical tests to determine if the data from experimentation are consistent with a hypothesis.
Law of Independent Assortment
Two different genes will randomly assort their alleles during gamete formation (if they are not linked).
Law of Segregation
The two copies of a gene segregate from each other during transmission from parent to offspring.
An allele of a gene that encodes an RNA or protein that is nonfunctional or compromised in function.
Multinomial expansion equation
an equation to solve genetic problems involving three or more types of unordered events
A method to solve independent assortment problems in which the probabilities of the outcome for each gene are multiplied together.
in a testcross, refers to a phenotype or arrangement of alleles on a chromosome that is not found in the parental generation.
1. In plants the structure in which the ovules develop.
2. In animals, the structure that produces egg cells and female hormones.
The structure in higher plants where the female gametophyte is produced
In a chi square table, the probability that the deviations between observed and expected values are due to random chance.
an incorrect hypothesis of heredity. it suggested that hereditary traits could be modified depending on the lifestyle of the individual. for example, it was believed that a person who practiced a particular skill would produce offspring that would be better at that skill.
Particulate theory of inheritance
A theory proposed by Mendel. It states that traits are inherited as discrete units that remain unchanged as they are passed from parent to offspring.
A genetic analysis using information contained within family trees. In this approach, the aim is to determine the type of inheritance pattern that a gene follows.
the observatble traits of an organism
the male gametophyte of flowering plants
the probabilty that two or more independent events will occur is equal to the products of their individual probabilities.
A diagrammatic method in which the gametes that two parents can produce are aligned next to a square grid as a way to predict the types of offspring the parents will produce and in what proportions
Random Sampling Error
The deviation between the observed and expected outcomes due to chance.
When two things are kept in separate locations. For example, homologous chromosomes segregate into different gametes.
A cross in which an experimenter is following the oucome of only a single trait.
A male gamete, Sperm are small and usually travel relatively far distances to reach the female gamete.
The structure found in the flower of higher plants that produces the male gametophyte (ie. pollen)
The structure in flowering plants on which the pollen land and the pollen tube starts to grow so that sperm cells can reach the egg.
A variety that continues to produce the same characteristic after seceral generations.
The probability that one of two or more mutually exclusive events will occur is equal to the sum of their individual probabilities.
any characteristic that an organism displays
a strain of a particular species that continues to produce the same trait after several generations of self-fertilization or inbreeding.
Individuals of the same species that exhibit different traits. An example is tall and dwarf pea plants.
A cross in which an experimenter follows the outcome of two different traits.