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Central Limit Theorem
States that sampling distribution of x(bar) will be normally distributed for large n.

Confidence Interval
A formula that tells us how to use the sample data to calculate an interval that estimates the target parameter.

Confidence Coefficient
The probability that a randomly selected confidence interval encloses the population parameter�that is, the relative frequency with which similarly constructed intervals enclose the population parameter when the estimator is used repeatedly a very large number of times.

Confidence Level
The confidence coefficient expressed as a percentage.

Hypothesis
A statement about the numerical value of a population parameter.

Null Hypothesis
Represents the hypothesis that will be accepted unless the data provide convincing evidence that it is false. This usually represents the �status quo� or some claim about the population parameter that the researcher wants to test.

Alternative (research) Hypothesis
Represents the hypothesis that will be accepted only if the data provide convincing evidence of its truth. This usually represents the values of a population parameter for which the researcher wants to gather evidence to support.

Test Statistic
A sample statistic, computed from information provided in the sample, that the researcher uses to decide between the null and alternative hypotheses.

Type I Error
Occurs if the researcher rejects the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis when in fact, Ho is true. The probability of committing a Type I error is denoted by alpha.

Type II Error
Occurs if the researcher accepts the null hypothesis when, in fact, Ho is false. The probability of committing a Type II error is denoted by beta.

OneTailed Test
..of hypothesis is one in which the alternative hypothesis is directional and includes the symbol �<� or �>�.

TwoTailed Test
�of hypothesis is one in which the alternative hypothesis does not specify departure from Ho in a particular direction and is written with the symbol �not equal to�.

Observed Significance Level (pvalue)
For a specific statistical test is the probability (assuming Ho is true) of observing a value of the test statistic that is at least as contradictory to the null hypothesis, and supportive of the alternative hypothesis, as the actual one computed from the sample data.

Response Variable
The variable of interest to be measured in the experiment.

Dependent Variable
The response.

Experimental Unit
The object on which the response and factors are observed or measured.

Designed Experiment
One for which the analyst controls the specification of the treatments and the method of assigning the experimental units to each treatment.

Observational Experiment
One for which the analyst simply observed the treatments and the response on a sample of experimental units.

