Anatomy Exam 1

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Anatomy Exam 1
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2011-09-13 22:52:46
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Anatomy Exam 1 Study Cards
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  1. articular cartilages
    type of hyelin cartilage thats covers the ends of most bones at moveable joints
  2. costal cartilages
    connect ribs to the sternum
  3. perichondrium
    "around the cartilage"; a membrane of dense irregular connective tissue that covers the external surface of cartilages
  4. What are two functions of the perichondrium?
    resists outward expansions when cartilage is subjected to pressure; functions in growth and repair
  5. What are the three types of cartilage?
    hyaline, eleastic, fibrocartilage
  6. Cartilage tissue consists of ___ that are located in ___ in the matrix.
    Chondrocytes, lacuna
  7. Which cartilage is the most abundant?
    hyaline
  8. Hyaline cartilage consists of which fiber?
    collagen fibrils
  9. What aspect of hyaline cartilage makes it able to resist compression well?
    the gelatiouns ground substance holds large amounts of water
  10. Hyaline cartilage provides support through ____ and ____.
    flexibility and resistance
  11. What kind of fibers do elastic cartilages contain?
    elastic fibers and collagen fibrils
  12. What kinds of fibers does fibrocartilage contain?
    thick collagen fibers
  13. Two ways in which cartilage grows:
    appositional growth, interstitial growth
  14. appositional growth
    "growth from the outside"; chondroblasts in perichondrium actively secrete matrix
  15. interstitial growth
    "growth from within"; chondrocytes within cartilage divide and secrete new matrix
  16. 6 functions of bone:
    support, movement, protection, mineral storage, blood cell formation and energy storage, energy metabolism
  17. Bones are ___% organic and ___% inorganic
    35, 65
  18. Bones are hard because...
    tiny crystals of mineral salts (calcium phosphate) pack in and around collagen fibrils in matrix
  19. the organic components of a bone contribute to its...
    flexibility and tensile strength
  20. 4 types of cells in bone:
    osteogenic cells, osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts
  21. osteogenic cells
    stem cells that differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts
  22. osteoblasts
    cells that actively produce and secrete the organic components of the bone matrix: ground substance and collagen fibers
  23. osteocytes
    osteoblasts that are surrounded by cell matrix and no longer produce osteoid
  24. osteoid
    the bone matrix; secreted by osetoblasts
  25. osteoclasts
    cells resposible for resorption of the bone by secreting hydochloric acid and lysosomal enzymes
  26. What are the most important minerals stored in the bone?
    calcium, phosphate.
  27. 4 different bone shapes:
    long, short, flat, irregular
  28. characteristics of long bones
    longer than they are wide; have shaft and two distinct ends
  29. Characteristics of short bones:
    roughly cube-shaped
  30. characteristic of flat bones:
    thin, flattened, and usually somewhat curved
  31. Characteristics of short bones:
    various shapes; do not fit into other categories
  32. compact bone
    dense, smooth outer layer of bone
  33. spongy bone
    also called trabecular bone; honeycomb of trabeculae
  34. trabeculae
    small needle-like or flat pieces in spongy bone
  35. Long bone: diaphysis
    shaft
  36. long bone: epiphysis
    bone ends
  37. epiphysis are covered with thin layer of:
    articular cartilage
  38. epiphyseal line
    lies between diaphysis and epiphysis. remnant of epiphyseal plate
  39. At any given time, 3% - 11% of the blood is in the:
    skeleton
  40. The nutrient artery and the nutrient vein are:
    the main vessels seving the diaphysis; run through the nutrient foramen
  41. the epiphyses obtain nutrients via:
    the epiphyseal arteries and veins
  42. medullary cavity
    marrow cavity; very center of long bone that contains no bone tissue
  43. periostreum
    connective tissue membrane that covers the entire outer surface of each bone except where articular cartilage occurs at the end of epiphyses
  44. periosteal membrane has two layers:
    superficial layer of dense irregular connective tissue, deep layer containing osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  45. The periostreum membrane is secured to the underlying bone by:
    perforating fibers; "Sharpey's fibers"
  46. Perforating fibers
    "Sharpey's fibers"; thick bundles of collagen that run from the periosteum into the bone matrix
  47. endosteum
    • thin connective tissue membrane covering the trabeculae and lining central canals of osteons;
    • also osteogenic like periostreum
  48. no marrow cavity is present in:
    short, flat, and irregular bones
  49. diploe
    the internal spongy bone of flat bones
  50. tuberosity
    large rounded projection; may be roughened
  51. crest
    narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent
  52. trochanter
    • very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process
    • only examples are the femur
  53. line
    narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest
  54. tubercle
    small rounded projection or process
  55. epicondyle
    raised area on or above a condyle
  56. spine
    sharp, slender, often pointed projection
  57. process
    any bony prominence
  58. head
    bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
  59. facet
    smooth, nearly flat articular surface
  60. condyle
    rounded articular projection, often articulates with a corresponding fossa
  61. foramen
    round or oval opening through a bone
  62. groove
    furrow
  63. fissure
    Narrow, slitlike opening
  64. notch
    indentation at the edge of a structure
  65. fossa
    shallow,basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
  66. meatus
    canal-like passageway
  67. sinus
    cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
  68. Haversian system
    osteon; important structural component of long bone; a group of concentric tubes resembling rings of a tree trunk; run parallel to long axis of the bone
  69. lamella
    a layer of bone matrix in which the collagen fibers and mineral crystals align and run in a single direction
  70. Haversian canal
    central canal; a canal that runs through the core of each osteon
  71. all internal bone cavities are lined by...
    osteogenic endosteum
  72. the central canal contains its own...
    blood vessels and nerve fibers
  73. lamellae of bone tissue are added to...
    the inner surface of the osteon, thus decreasing the diameter of the central canal
  74. Perforating canals
    Volksmann's canals; lie ar right angles to the central canals; connect nerve and blood supply of the periosteum to that of the central canals and marrow cavity.
  75. The "spider legs" of osteocytes occupy...
    thin tubes called canaliculi
  76. How do osteocytes in compact bone get the nutrients they need?
    nutrients diffuse from capillaries in central canal and diffuse across gap junctions formed by neighboring osteocytes through canaliculi
  77. interstitial lamellae
    groups of incomplete lamellae that lie between the osteons; are the remains of old osteons that have been cut by bone remodeling
  78. circumfrential lamellae
    lamellae that extend around the entire circumference of the diaphysis; effectively resist twisting of the entire long bone
  79. How do osteocytes in spongy bone receive nutrients?
    From capillaries in the endosteum surrounding the trabecula via connections through the canaliculi
  80. 2 names for bone tissue formation
    osteogenesis and ossification
  81. membrane bones
    bones that develop via intramembranous ossification
  82. endochondral bones
    cartilage replacement bones; bone that starts out as hyelin cartilage and is replaced through endochondral ossification
  83. what bones are formed by intramembranous ossification?
    most of the skull bones, except some at the base, and the clavicle
  84. intramembranous ossification
    the formation of bones from mesenchymal cells that cluster within the connective tissue membrane and secrete osteoid
  85. woven bone tissue
    random network of trabeculae created when new bone tissue forms between embryonic blood vessels
  86. extension
    movement that increase the angle the angle of the parts of the joint
  87. adduction
    movement towards the axis or midline of the body
  88. abduction
    movement away from the axis or midline of the body
  89. inversion
    a turning inward, as the ankle
  90. eversion
    a turning outward, as the ankle
  91. dorsiflexion
    with the ankle, the superior surface of the foot approaches the shin
  92. plantar flexion
    with the ankle extension of the foot, pointing the toes
  93. supination
    placement of a body part so that the anterior surface is superior
  94. pronation
    placement of a body part so that the posterior surface is superior
  95. circumduction
    the distal end of the body part describes a circle. but the bone does not rotate
  96. retraction
    a body part moves posteriorly in a horizontal plane
  97. protraction
    a body part moves anteriorly in a horizontal plane
  98. elevation
    moves a body part superiorly
  99. depression
    moves a body part inferiorly
  100. lateral flexion
    moves the vertebral column in a lateral direction (to the side)
  101. cephalic region
    head
  102. cervical region
    neck
  103. thoracic region
    chest
  104. brachium region
    the arm from the shoulder to the elbow
  105. antebrachium
    the forearm
  106. antecubital
    the front of the elbow
  107. carpus
    wrist
  108. pubis
    the anterior pelvis
  109. inguinal
    the groin
  110. lumbar
    lower back
  111. gluteus
    buttocks
  112. femur
    thigh
  113. patella
    kneecap
  114. crus
    the leg from the knee to the ankle
  115. talus
    the ankle
  116. plantar
    sole of foot
  117. hypochondriac
    "deep to the cartilage"
  118. abdominal region #1
    right hypochondriac region; contains liver and gallbladder
  119. abdominal region #2
    epigastric region; contains the stomach
  120. abdominal region #3
    left hypochondriac region; contains the diaphragm and spleen
  121. abdominal region #4
    right lumbar region; contains the ascending colon of the large intestine
  122. abdominal region #5
    umbilical region; contains the small intestine and traverse colon of the large intestine
  123. abdominal region #6
    left lumbar region; contains the descending colon of the large intestine
  124. abdominal region #7
    right iliac (inguinal) region; contains the cecum and appendix
  125. abdominal region #8
    hypogastric (pubic) region; contains the urinary bladder
  126. abdominal region #9
    left iliac (inguinal) region; contains the intial part of sigmoid colon
  127. iliac
    (inguinal) pertaining to the groin region
  128. epigastric
    "superior to the belly"
  129. hypogastric
    "inferior to the belly"
  130. parietal membrane
    the outermost layer, surrounds the ventral body cavity; pertaining to the walls of a cavity
  131. visceral
    the innermost layer, surrounds of organs of the ventral body cavity; pertaining to the organs and structures within the ventral body cavity and to all smooth muscle and glands throughout the body
  132. peritoneum
    serous membrane that lines the interior of the abdominopelvic cavity and covers the surfaces of the organs in this cavity
  133. pleura
    serous membrane that lines the pleural cavity in the thorax and covers the external surface of the lung
  134. pericardium
    double-layered sac that encloses the heart and forms its superficial layer
  135. perineum
    region of trunk superficial to the pelvic diaphragm and bounded by the pubic symphysis anteriorly, coccyx posteriorly, and ischial tuberosities laterally. contains anus, vulva, and scrotum
  136. umbilicus
    navel; belly button
  137. mediastinum
    region of thoracic cavity between the lungs; contains the heart, thoracic aorta, esophagus, and other structures
  138. epi-
    Prefix taken from the Greek that means "on, upon, at, by, near, over, on top of, toward, against, among."
  139. hypo-
    under, beneath, lacking
  140. gastro-
    stomach, belly
  141. oseto-
    From the Greek "osteon", bone
  142. chondro-
    cartilage
  143. hyper-
    above, excessive
  144. peri-
    around
  145. histology
    the study of (normal) tissue
  146. pathology
    the study of the disease state and abnormal tissue
  147. matrix
    "womb"; nonliving intercellular fluid secreted by tissue cells
  148. anatomy
    study of the structure of the human body
  149. cell
    structural and functional component of life. we have 60-100 trillion cells
  150. tissue
    an aggregation of similar cells that perform a common function
  151. organ
    an aggregate of tissue types that perform a specific function
  152. organ system
    various organs that have similar or related functions
  153. superior
    above
  154. inferior
    below
  155. anterior
    pertaining to the front of the body
  156. posterior
    pertaining to the back of the body
  157. ventral
    towards the chest or belly
  158. dorsal
    towards the back
  159. medial
    toward the midline of the body
  160. lateral
    away from the midline of the body
  161. proximal
    toward the trunk of the body
  162. distal
    away from the trunk of the body
  163. ipsilateral
    on the same side
  164. contralateral
    on the opposite side
  165. flexion
    movement that decreases the angle of the parts of the joint
  166. taxonomic classification
    Doesn't King Phillip Come Over For Good Sex
  167. smallest level of organization in the human body
    cellular level
  168. second level of organization in the human body
    tissue level
  169. third level of organization in the human body
    organ level; usally primary and secondary tissue, but organ will have all four tissues
  170. highest level of organization in the human body
    system level - circulatory, respiratory, digestive, nervous, endocrine
  171. coronal plane
    frontal plane; lies vertically and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
  172. transverse plane
    horizontal plane/cross section; runs horizontally from right to left; divides body into superior and inferior parts
  173. sagittal plane
    vertical; divide body into left and right parts
  174. median plane
    specific sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline; midsagittal plane
  175. parasagittal planes
    sagittal planes that are ofset from the midline
  176. oblique sections
    cuts along any plane that lies diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical
  177. Name the main body cavities
    Dorsal body cavity, and ventral body cavity (contains visceral organs, or viscera)
  178. What are the subdivisions of the dorsal body cavity?
    cranial cavity, and vertebral cavity
  179. cranial cavity
    contains the brain
  180. vertebral cavity
    contains the spinal cord
  181. What are the subdivisions of the ventral body cavity?
    divided by diaphragm; thoracic cavity, and abdominopelvic cavity
  182. What are the three parts of the thoracic cavity?
    (1) two lateral, each containing a lung surrounded by a pleural cavity; (2) central bands of organs called mediastinum, contains heart surrounded by (3) pericardial cavity
  183. What are the two parts of the abdominopelvic cavity and what organs do they contain?
    • abdomincal cavity - superior, contains liver, stomach, kidneys, etc
    • pelvic cavity - inferior, contains bladder, some reproductive organs, and rectum
  184. Many organs in the abdominopelvic cavity are surrounded by...
    peritoneal cavity
  185. What are the greater and lesser omentum?
    folds of peritoneum that extend from the stomach
  186. mesenteries
    double folds of peritoneum that connect the parietal peritoneum with the visceral peritoneum
  187. Which body cavity has no serous membranes?
    the dorsal body cavity
  188. What are the three types of intercellular junctions?
    zonula occludens, desmosomes, gap junctions
  189. zonula occludens
    tight junctions; protein molecules in adjacent cell membranes fuse together, forming impermeable barrier
  190. desmosomes
    anchoring junctions; mechanical couplings like rivets along sides of adjecent cells. found in tissues under mechanical stress.
  191. gap junctions
    allow chemicals to pass between adjacent cells; passage helps to sunchronize cells; found in heart and smooth muscle
  192. cytology
    the study of the microscopic appearance of cells, especially for the diagnosis of abnormalities and malignancies
  193. basement membrane
    a layer between an epithelium and the underlying connective tissue; consists of both a basal lamina & a network of reticular fibers
  194. matrix
    the material that lies between the cells in connective tissues; consists of fibers, ground substance, & tissue fluid
  195. epithelium
    a primary tissue that covers body surfaces & lines body cavities; cells are arranged in sheets; also forms glands.
  196. stratified
    consists of two or more cell layers stacked on each other. Found where protection is important.
  197. How do stratified cells regenerate?
    stratified cells regenerate from the basal layer and push apically as they mature
  198. simple (tissue)
    a single cell layer; thin; concerned w/absorption, filtration, and secretion.
  199. pseudostratified
    Pertaining to an epithelium that appears to be stratified but is not; cells very in height but all touch the base of the epithelium.
  200. squamous
    flat, platelike; pertaining to flat epithelial cells that are wider than they are tall.
  201. transitional epithelium
    cells of its basal layer are cuboidal or columnar, while the apical cells vary in appearance from rounded to flattened depending on the distention of the organ
  202. mesothelium
    a simple squamous epithelium that makes up a serous membrane
  203. endothelium
    simple squamous epithelium that lines the lumen of all vessels
  204. cilia
    whiplike, highly motile extensions of the apical surface membranes of certain epithelial cells
  205. apical
    up
  206. serous cell
    exocrine gland cell that secretes a watery product containing digestive enzymes; saliva, containing amylase
  207. serous membrane
    consists of mesothelium lying on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue; line the closed pleural, perocardial, and peritonial cavities
  208. mucoid
    secrete glycoproteins (larger protein attached to carb) called mucin that absorb water to form a slippery mucus.
  209. apocrine secretion
    some of the cytoplasm of the cell becomes the secretory product, ex. milk production by lactiferous glands
  210. merocrine secretion
    secretory vesicles are discharged; goblet cells
  211. holocrine secretion
    entire cell becomes packed with secretory products and the cell dies as the secretion is released; ex. sebaceous hair glands
  212. acinar (alveolar)
    gland shape; gland resembles a flask
  213. tubular glands
    secretory cells form tubes
  214. microvilli
    fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane of apical epithelia cells
  215. simple glands
    ducts do not branch; only one generation of ducts
  216. compound glands
    branching ducts
  217. -blast
    immature or active cells; bud, germ blastocyte, undifferentiated embryonic cell
  218. -cyte
    mature; cells in quiescent state
  219. -clast
    cells that remodel or break down connective tissue
  220. mesenchyme cells
    stem cells that can produce daughter cells that are fibroblasts, macrophages, or other CT cells
  221. fibroblast
    msot abundant fixed cell in connective tissue proper. elongate or stellate - are responsible for productions and maintenance of CT fibers
  222. fibroblasts manufacture and secrete....
    protein subunits that interact to form large extracellular fibers; secrete hyaluronan
  223. fascia
    layers of fibrous connective tissue that cover and seperate muscles and other structures; superficial fascia is the fatty hypodermis of the skin
  224. collagenous fibers
    contain collagen which is flexible, but very strong; long, straight, and unbranched; each fiber contains three fibrous proteins that are wound together like a rope
  225. collagen
    thick, whitish gray fibers; strongest and most abundant; bundles of thinner collagen fibrils; CT fiber
  226. reticular
    bundles of special type of collagen; form a delicate latticework or reticulum by branching; individual fibers glide freely across each other; CT fiber
  227. Where can reticular fibers be found?
    common in lymphatic glands; coat capillaries; form basement membrane of epithelia
  228. elastic
    contain rubberlike protein elastin; able to coil back to original form after being stretched; CT fiber
  229. erythrocytes
    red blood cell; when mature, is literally sac of hemoglobin covered by plasma membrane
  230. leukocytes
    white blood cell; 5 types, all involved in the defense against disease
  231. macrophages
    large amoeboid cells that are scattered among CT fibers; phagoctyosize damaged cells or pathogens; when stimulated release chemicals that initiate inflammatory response and attract large number of wandering cells
  232. mast cells
    small CT cells often clustered around blood vessels; have secretory histamine granules, also produce heparin
  233. heparin
    anticoagulant that prevents blood from clotting in blood vessel; produced by mast cells
  234. tendon
    cord of dense regular connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
  235. ligament
    dense regular connective tissue that connect bone to bone across articulations
  236. articulation
    joint
  237. adipose
    fatty
  238. adipocytes
    fat cells or adipose cells; typical cell contains single enormous liquid droplet; squeezes organelles and nucleus to one side
  239. chondrocytes
    mature form of cartilage cell
  240. dense regular fibers
    dense regular connective tissue; densely packed, parallel collagen fibers; run parallel to directions of applied force; also called white fibrous CT
  241. dense irregular fibers
    dense irregular connective tissue; large amounts of densely packed, interwoven collagen fibers that provide tensile strength in any direction; also called white fibrous CT
  242. loose connective tissue
    much of space is occupied by ground substance; 3 types: adipose, reticular, areolar
  243. connective tissue proper
    contains CT cells, extracellular protein fibers, and abundant ground substance; functions in support, holding of tissue fluid, and protection from disease
  244. hyaline cartilage
    closely packed by very fine collagen fibers; somewhat flexible, so weakest; supports and reinforces; resists compressive stress.
  245. where is hyaline cartilage found?
    connections between ribs and sternum; supporting cartilage along respiratory tract; covering articular surfaces within within synovial joints like elbow or knee
  246. fibrocartilage
    matrix is reinforced by numerous interwoven, collagen fibers; strong and able to absorbe shock; found between vertebrae and in menisci of the knee
  247. elastic cartilage
    similar to hyaline, except it has abundant elastic fibers that make it very flexible w/o compromising strength
  248. where is elastic cartilage found?
    outer ear, portions of the larynx, auditory canal
  249. What are functions of epithelial tissue?
    protection, sensory reception, diffusion; secretion; absorption; ion transport; filtration; form slipper surfaces
  250. simple squamous epithelia
    found where filtration or exchange is priority; filtrations capsules of kidneys; air sacs in lung
  251. simple cuboidal epithelium
    found where secretion and absorption are important; glands, kidneys tubules
  252. simple columnar epithelium
    found where absorption and secretion are important; stomach, intestinal tract
  253. pseudostratified columnar
    secrete or absorb substances; found along msot of the respiratory tract
  254. stratified squamous epithelia
    become progressively flattened as they mature apically; forms epidermis; mouth; tongue; pharynx; esophagus; rectum; vagina
  255. stratified cuboidal
    uncommon; found in larger ducts of some glands: mammary, sweat, salivary
  256. stratified columnar epithelia
    uncommon, found in male urethra
  257. transitional epithelia
    cells of basal layer are cuboidal or columnar; apical cells vary in appearance from rounded to flattened depending on distension of organ
  258. 6 characteristics of epithelium
    composed of closely packed cells; polarity; innervated; avascular; regenerate rapidly, have basement membrane
  259. 3 secretion types (glands):
    mucoid, serous, mixed endocrine glands
  260. mixed endocrine glands
    contain more than one type of gland cell and may produce two different exocrine secretions, one serous and one mucous; ex. submandibular gland
  261. 6 functions of CT
    (1) establish structural framework for body; (2) transport fluids and dissolved materia; (3) provide protection for organs; (4) supporting, surrounding, and interconnecting other tissue types; (5) storing energy reserves; (6) defending body from invasion by MOs
  262. CT includes:
    fat, cartilage, bone, blood
  263. 3 subdivisions of CT
    CT proper; supporting CT; Fluid CT
  264. subdivisions of CT Proper
    Loose CT; dense CT
  265. subdivisions of Supporting CT
    cartilage; bone
  266. subdivisions of loose CT
    adipose, reticular, areolar
  267. subdivisions of dense CT
    regular, irregular, elastic
  268. subdivisions of cartilage
    hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
  269. subdivisions of bone
    compact, spongy
  270. supporting connective tissue contains:
    cartilage and bone
  271. fluid connective tissue contains:
    blood and lymph
  272. Adipose tissue
    gel-like matrix, very sparse; closely packed adipocytes
  273. functions of adipose tissue
    reserve food fuel; insulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs
  274. reticular tissue
    gel-like matrix; network of reticular fibers; reticular cells lie on network
  275. areolar tissue
    CT proper, loose CT; gel-like matrix w/mostly collagen, reticular, & elastic fibers. also has mostly fibroblasts, but also macrophages, mast cells, white blood cells
  276. functions of areolar tissue
    wraps and cushions organs; seperates skin from deeper structures; macrophages phagocytize bacteria; inflames by taking in fluid; holds & conveys tissue fluid; cushions shock
  277. locations of areolar tissue
    under epithelia; forms lamina propria of mucous membranes; packages organs, surrounds capillaries
  278. location of adipose tissue
    under skin in hypodermis; around kidneys & eyeballs; w/in abdomen; in breasts
  279. location of reticular tissue
    lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen)
  280. 3 basic histological components of CT
    relatively few cells, lots of extracellular matrix; matrix composed of ground substance and fibers; embryonic origin
  281. elastic - dense CT
    dense regular CT containing a high proportion of elastic fibers
  282. functions of elastic dense CT tissue
    allows recoil after stretching; maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries; aids passive recoil of lungs
  283. locations of dense elastic CT
    walls of large arteries; w/in certain ligaments associated w/vertebral column; walls of bronchial tubes
  284. osseous tissue
    bone; hard, calcified matrix containg collagen fibers; osteocytes in lacuna; well vascularized
  285. mesenchymal cells
    embryonic connective tissue;gel-like ground substance containing fibers; star-shaped mesechymal cells; give rise to all other connective tissue types
  286. 4 types of dense regular CT
    tendons, ligaments, aponeurosis, elestic connective tissue
  287. location of dense irregular tissue
    dermis of skin; submucosa of GI tract; fibrous capsules of joints and organs
  288. blood connective tissue
    cells or formed elements suspended in a liquid matrix (plasma); include erthrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
  289. lymph
    matrix is interstitial fluid (mainly fluid that has left vascular system and needs to return to it); cells are mainly lymphocytes (type of WBC)
  290. integument
    skin
  291. epidermis
    "on the skin"; keratinized stratified squamous epithelium; contains keratinocytes, tactile epithelial cells, dendritic cells, melanocytes
  292. 5 layers of epidermis
    stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum; stratum lucidum; stratum corneum
  293. dermis
    2nd major region of skin; much thicker than epidermis;
  294. hypodermis
    not part of skin; binds dermis to underlying organs
  295. stratum basale
    deepest layer of eidermis; attached to dermis
  296. 4 cell types of stratum basale
    keratinocytes; melanocytes; Merkel cells; Langerhans cells
  297. germinativum
    collective name for stratum basale and stratum spinosum b/c both layers have germinating cells
  298. stratum spinosum
    2nd layer from bottom; several layers of keratinocytes unified by desmosomes; friction at surface results in additional mitotic activity and in a callus; named for spinelike extensions of cells on slides
  299. stratum granulosum
    3rd layer from bottom; 1 - 5 layers of flattened keratinocytes; contain pre-keratine intermediate filaments, keratohylin granules, and lamellated granules; last layer able to receive nutrients from dermal capillaries
  300. stratum lucidum
    4th layer from bottom, if present; clear, thin layer of flat, dead, keratinocytes; occurs only in thick skin; aka transitional zone;
  301. stratum corneum
    most superficial layer; aka horny layer; 15-30 layers of dead keratinocytes completely filled with keratin (sacs); thicker plasma membrane; protect from abrasion and penetration; glycolipids in between cells makes layer waterproof
  302. keratinocytes
    specialized keratin producing cells; as cells are pushed superficially nuclei degenerate and keratin completely dominates the cell; also produce antibiotics and enzymes.
  303. keratin
    touch fibrous protein that gives epidermis its protective properties
  304. merkel cells
    sensory cells aiding in touch reception
  305. vitiligo
    skin condition in which there is a loss of brown color (pigment) from areas of skin, resulting in irregular white patches that feel like normal skin; immune cells destroy the melanocytes
  306. sudoriferous glands
    sweat glands; typically for cooling and secretion of wastes; are merocrine or apocrine
  307. sebaceous
    oil glands that secrete sebum onto shaft of hair root; lubricates and waterproofs stratus corneum; holocrine glands; regulated by sex hormones; can cause acne if hyperactive
  308. ceruminous
    secrete cerumen (earwax); found only in external auditory canal; keeps tympanic membrane (ear drum) pliable
  309. melanocytes
    "melanin cells"; spider-shaped; makes then transfer melanin to keratinocytes through "spider-legs";
  310. langerhans cells
    protective macrophages
  311. keratohyalin granules
    provides "glue" to embed pre-keratin intermediate filaments in keratin
  312. lamellated granules
    contain a waterproofing glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular space; slows water loss through epidermis; located in stratum granulosum
  313. merocrine cells
    aka eccrine glands; widely distributed over skin - forehead, back, palms, and soles; function in evaporative cooling
  314. apocrine cells
    much larger cells than merocrine cells; found in axillary and pubic regions, and secrete into hair follicles; don't function until puberty
  315. 2 layers of dermis
    papillary and reticular
  316. papillary layer of dermis
    superficial 20% of dermis; areolar connective tissue containing very thin collagen and elastic fibers; includes dermal papillae
  317. reticular layer of the dermis
    dense irregular CT w/extracellular matrix consisting of thick bundles of collagen and elastic fibers; deeper and thicker than papillary layer
  318. 5 functions of the skin:
    • (1) protection
    • (2) body temp regulation
    • (3) excretion
    • (4) production of vitamin D
    • (5) sensory reception
  319. In general, how does the skin regulate temperature?
    heat is given off through rich capillary networks (subpapillary plexus) and sweat glands prevent overheating b/c sweat cools the skin as it evaporates
  320. Why are small amounts of UV light necessary for the body?
    UV light is needed for the synthesis of Vitamin D, which helps regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism
  321. What are lines of tension?
    elastic and collagen fibers are arranged in patterns; seperations or less dense regions of collagen bundles form lines of tension; incisions made across these lines tend to heal more readily
  322. True or False: the dermis is highly vascularized
    True
  323. 2 vascular plexuses associated with the dermis
    dermal plexus (deep), and the subpapillary plexus (superficial)
  324. dermal plexus
    network of converging and diverging blood vessels located between the hypodermis and dermis
  325. subpapillary plexus
    network of converging and diverging blood vessels located just below the dermal papillae; functions in temperature regulation
  326. How does the subpapillary plexus regulate temperature?
    when internal organs needs more blood or heat, these vessels constrict and send more blood into the body; when it is hot, dermal vessels engorge with blood and radiate heat away from it
  327. Linea albicans
    stretch marks; occur when collagen in dermis is torn due to pregnancy or obesity; results in silvery white scars
  328. hypodermis
    "below the skin"; aka superficial fascia; consists of both areolar and adipose (predominates) CT
  329. functions of the hypodermis
    stores fat and connects anchors skin to underlying structures, like muscles; also an insulator
  330. hematopoiesis (hemopoiesis)
    Red and white blood cells are produced from stem cells within red marrow; ~ 2.5 million RBC's are produced every second
  331. metacarpal
    meta-"beyond"; radiate distally from wrist, off carpals, to form palm of hand
  332. metatarsal
    radiate distally from ankle off the tarsals; enlarged head of first metatarsal forms ball of foot
  333. phalanges
    miniature long bones contained in the fingers; each finger, except the thumb, has three phalanges; proximal, middle, distal
  334. sesamoid
    additional bones that develop in tendons in response to stress across a joint
  335. metaphysis
    part of the long bone that contains the epiphyseal plate and grows during childhood; in adulthood it ossifies into solid bone
  336. interstitial lamellae
    remains of old osteons that have been cut through by bone remodeling
  337. osteon
    Haversian system; long cylindrical structures oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone
  338. perforating canal (Volkmann's canal)
    lie at right angles to the central canals and connect blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the central canals and marrow cavity
  339. What are two divisions of the skeleton?
    axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton
  340. What bones are located in the axial skeleton?
    skull, bones of thorax, & vertebral column, including sacrum and coccyx
  341. synarthroses
    immovable joints; mostly axial skeleton
  342. smphiarthroses
    slightly movable joints; mostly axial skeleton
  343. diarthroses
    freely movable joints; predominate in limbs
  344. fibrous joints
    adjoining bones united by collagenic fibers; dense regular connective tissue
  345. 3 types of fibrous joints
    sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
  346. sutures
    "seams"; bones are tightly bound by minimal amount of fibrous tissue
  347. locations of sutures
    found only in flat bones of the skull
  348. synostoses
    closed sutures; during middle age, the fibrous tissue of sutures ossifies and the skull bones fuse together.
  349. syndesmoses
    bones are connected exclusively by ligaments = bands of fibrous tissue that are longer that sutures; amount of movement depends on length of fibers
  350. gomphosis
    peg-in-socket joint; only ex is atriculation of tooth with its socket; connecting ligament is short periodontal ligament
  351. cartilaginous joints
    articulating joints are united by cartilage; lack joint cavity and are not highly movable
  352. 2 types of cartilaginous joints
    synchrodroses and symphyses
  353. synchrodroses
    joint where hyaline cartilage unites joints; ex epiphyseal plates, and joint between first rib's costal cartilage and the manubrium of the sternum
  354. symphyses
    A joint where fibrocartilage unites the bones; ex. pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs
  355. synovial joints
    the most movable joints in body; all are diathroses; each joint contains fluid-filled joint cavity
  356. feature of synovial joints - articular cartilage
    ends of opposing bones are covered by articular cartilage composed of hyaline cartilage; abosrbs compressive forces
  357. feature of synovial joints - joint cavity
    potential space that holds small amount of synovial fluid; unique to synovial joints
  358. feature of synovial joints - articular capsule
    two-layered articular capsule enclosing the joint capsule; outer layer is fibrous capsule of dense irregular CT continuous with periosteum; inner layer is synovial membrane = loose connective tissue that makes synovial fluid
  359. feature of synovial joints - synovial fluid
    viscous liquid inside the joint capsule; filtrate of blood w/special glycoproteins
  360. feature of synovial joints - reinforcing ligaments
    bandlike ligaments that reinforce and strengthen some synovial joints
  361. feature of synovial joints - nerves and vessels
    aynovial joints are richly supplied w/ sensory nerve fibers thar innervate articular capsule
  362. artilcular disc
    meniscus; disc of fibrocartilage; extends internally from the capsule or completely divides the joint cavity in two
  363. bursa
    "purse"; flattened fibrous sac lined by a synovial membrane; occur where bones and ligaments overlie each other and rub together
  364. tendon sheath
    an elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon; only occur on tendons that are subjected to friction
  365. weeping lubricant
    when pressure is placed on articular cartilage, synovial fluid rushes out; when pressure cease, the synovial fluid rushes back in to the cartilage
  366. angular movements
    increasing or decreasing angle between two bones
  367. plane joint
    articular surfaces are flat planes;
  368. hinge joints
    cylindrical end of one bone fits into trough-shaped surface; uniaxial
  369. pivot joint
    rounded end of one bone fits into a ring that is formed by another bone plus encircling ligament
  370. condyloid joint
    "kuckle-like"; egg-shapped articular surface of one bone fits into an oval concavity; biaxial
  371. saddle joint
    each articular surface has both convex and concave areas, like saddle. allows for opposition of thumb
  372. ball-and-socket joint
    spherical head of one bone fits into a round socket in another; multiaxial joints
  373. muscle tone
    constant, low level of contractile force generated by a msucle even when its not causing movement
  374. sternoclavicular joint
    saddle joint; anterior & posterior sternoclavicular ligaments, interclavicular ligament, and costoclavicular ligament surround joint
  375. temporomandibular joint
    jew joint; modified hinge joint
  376. knee ligaments
    patellar, continuation of ligament from quadriceps femoris); medial patellar retinacula; lateral patellar retinacula
  377. fibular (lateral) collateral ligament
    extracapsular; lateral epicondyle of femur to lateral surface of head of fibia
  378. tibial collateral ligament
    extracapsular; miedal epicondyle of femur to medial meniscus and miedalcondyle of tibia and medial tibial shaft
  379. 2 extracapsular and capsular knee ligaments
    oblique popliteal and arcuate popliteal ligaments
  380. 2 intracapsular ligaments
    anterior cruciate (anterior tibia to medial posterior femur) and posterior cruciate ligament (posterior tibia to lateral anterior femur)
  381. knee menisci
    2 c-shaped fibrocartilage pads between the femoral and tibial condyles
  382. bursitis
    inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by blow or friction; treated w/injected antiinflammatories and/or needle aspiration bc excessive fluid accumulation
  383. tendonitis
    inflammation of tendon sheaths; typically from overuse
  384. arthritis
    over 100 different types of inflammatory and degenerative diseases; pain, stiffness, swelling of joint
  385. osteoarthritis
    most common arthritis; chronic degenerative condition
  386. rheumatoid arthritis
    chronic inflammatory disorder; autoimmune disease, attacks synovial membranes
  387. gouty arthritis
    excess uric acid crystalizes in soft tissues of joints and triggers inflammatory response

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