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  1. what is major depressive disorder MDD?
    severe emotional disorder, presents with Hx of 1 or more major depressive episodes and No hx of manic/hypomanic episodes
  2. what are the subtypes of MDD?
    • catatonic
    • melancholic
    • post partum onset
    • seasonal affective disorder SAD
    • atypical
  3. what is present in a catatonic feature?
    extreme psychomotor retardation almost paralyzed, withdrawn, negativity, no speech
  4. what is present in melancholic feature?
    severe endogenous depression not related to environmental stress, more associated with time of the day: worse early in the morning and tend to have suicidal ideation
  5. what is present in post partum onset ?
    4wks after childbirth, mom have eexcessive rumination and delusional thoughts about baby indicating increased risk of harm
  6. what is present in season affective disorder SAD?
    severe depressive episodes during fall/winter, ease up during spring/summer months
    overeat, crave for carbs, no energy, reduced cerebral metabolic activity
  7. what is present in atypical feature?
    • overeat or oversleep (vegetative signs), high level of anxiety
    • occur in younger individual often misdiagnosed
  8. what is present in psychotic features?
    presence of disorganized thoughts, delusions, hallucinations
  9. what is dysthymic disorder DD?
    • mild to moderate signs of depression, present most of the day, more days than not, for at least 2 yrs
    • diagnosed early childhood, early adulthood
    • at risk for developing MDD
  10. what are statements given by pt and family related to DD?
    • "Ive always been this way"
    • "Theyve always been that way"
  11. differentiate MMD and DD
    presenting signs are almost same, difference is duration and severity of symptoms
  12. what is one major health problem of elderly, at many times go untreated and increase their risk for suicide?
    depression - not normal part of aging
  13. what are the causes of depressive disorder?
    hormonal regulation
    diathesis stress model
  14. what neurotransmitters are involved in the depression mood of individuals?
  15. what is the function of serotonin?what is the effect of its deficiency?
    regulate sleep, appetite, sex drives

    sleep deprivation, decreased appetite/sex drive, poor impulse, irritability
  16. what is the function of norepinephrine?what are the effects of its deficiency?
    modulates attention/behavior

    apathy, decreased responsiveness, slowed psychomotor activity
  17. what are the other neurotransmitter believed to be involved in depressive moods?
    acetylcholine, GABA, dopamine
  18. in relation to hormonal regulation, what abnormality is present?
    hyperactivity of limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal cortical axis
    high levels of urine cortisol
  19. what is diathesis stress model?
    • take into account interplay of biology and environment
    • people who are more at risk of developing MDD will not have full blown disease process unless an environment tirgger is present
Card Set
major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, subtypes, causes
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