CISCO Chapter 2.txt

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CiscoPhil
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100951
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CISCO Chapter 2.txt
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2011-09-10 20:47:27
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Vocab and Questions from Chapter 2 of CIS26A
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  1. Channel p35
    A communication path over a medium used to transport information from a sender to a receiver. Multiple channels can be multiplexed over a single cable.
  2. Segmentation p35
    In TCP, the process of taking a large chunk of data and breaking it into small-enough pieces to fit within a TCP segment without breaking any rules about the maximum amount of data allowed in a segment .
  3. Multiplexing p36
    A process where multiple digital data streams are combined into one signal.
  4. Switch p37
    In Ethernet, a Layer 2 device that receives an electrical signal in one port, interprets the bits, and makes a filtering or forwarding decision about the frame. If it forwards, it sends a regenerated signal. Switches typically have many physical ports, oftentimes RJ-45 jacks, whereas bridges traditionally have two ports.
  5. End device p37
    A device such as a desktop or mobile device that is used by an end user.
  6. Host address p38
    IPv4 address of a network host. When talking about host addresses, they are the network layer addresses.
  7. Physical address p38
    A data link layer address, for example, a MAC address.
  8. Intermediary device p38
    A device that connects end devices to the network or interconnects different networks. A router is an example of an intermediary device
  9. Encoding p39
    To change the energy levels transmitted over some networking medium to transmit bits over that medium.
  10. LAN p41
    Local-area network. A network created for devices located in a limited geographic area, through which the company owning the LAN has the right to run cables.
  11. ISP p42
    • Internet Service Provider
    • A company that helps create the Internet by providing connectivity to enterprises and individuals, as well as interconnecting to other ISP�s to create connectivity to all other ISPs.
  12. Protocols p44
    A written specification that defines what tasks a service or device should perform. Each protocol defines messages, often in the form of headers, plus the rules and processes by which these messages are used to achieve some states purpose.
  13. Protocol suite p45
    A delineation of networking protocols and standards into different categories, called layers, along with definitions of which set the standards and protocols need to be implemented to create products can be used to create a working network.
  14. IEEE p46
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: An international nonprofit organization for the advancement of technology related to electricity. IEEE maintains the standards defining many LAN protocols.
  15. IETF p46
    International Organization for Standardization: An international standards body that defines many networking standards. Also the standards body that created the OSI model.
  16. Layered models p47
    A model that consists of various layers that enables the development and explanation of technology to be done on a modular basis. This allows interoperability among different technologies among the different layers.
  17. TCP/IP 48
    Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol: A network model defined by the IETF that has been implemented on most computers and network devices in the world.
  18. Encapsulation p51
    The process by which a device adds networking headers and trailers to data from an application for the eventual transmission of the data onto a transmission medium.
  19. Decapsulation p51
    A process by which an end device, after it receives data over some transmission medium, examines the headers and trailers at each successive higher layer, eventually handing the data to the correct application. Sometimes called de-encapsulation.
  20. PDU p51
    Protocol data unit: A generic term from OSI that refers to the data, headers, and trailers about which a particular networking layer is concerned.
  21. Segment p51
    • 1. A collision domain that is a section of a LAN that is bound by bridges, routers, or switches.
    • 2. In a LAN using a bus topology, a segment is a continuous electrical circuit that is often connected to other such segments with repeaters.
    • 3. When used with TCP, the term segment (verb) refers to the work TCP does to accept a large piece of data from an application and break it into smaller pieces. Again with TCP, used as a noun, segment refers to one of those smaller pieces of data.
  22. Frame p51
    The Layer 2 PDU that has been encoded by a data link layer protocol for digital transmission. Some different kinds of frames are Ethernet frames and PPP frames.
  23. OSI p53
    Open Systems Interconnection: International standardization program created by ISO and ITU-T to develop standards for data networking that facilitate multivendor equipment interoperability.
  24. ISO p53
    International Organization for Standardization: An international standards body that defines many networking standards. Also, the standards body that created the OSI model.
  25. Port p57
    In networking, this term is used in several ways. With Ethernet hub and switch hardware, port is simply another name for interface, which is a physical connector in the switch into which a cable can be connected. With TCP and UDP, a port is a software function that uniquely identifies a software process on a computer that used TCP or UDP. With PCs, a port can be a physical connector on the PC, like a parallel or USB port.

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