Biology Chapter 3 JCCC

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Biology Chapter 3 JCCC
2011-09-12 20:47:22
JCCC 00am Class

Test notes for exam.
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  1. What is the difference between lactose and lactase?
    • Lactose is a Sugar found in milk.
    • Lactase is the enzyme that brakes down milk enzyme.
  2. What is lactose intolerence?
    It is a normal human condition that come as people age and the body stops producing Lactase. It causes digestive discomfort. Over time the body can adapt to continue to produce this enzyme as in cultures in europe.
  3. What is an organtic compound?
    Carbon Based molecules are called Organtic Compounds. It is considered the lead player because it is able to share electrons with other atom for in four covalent bonds.
  4. What is Hydrocarbon?
    They are compounds composed of only Carbon and hydrogen.
  5. What is a Carbon Skeleton?
    The chain of Carbon atoms in an organtic molecule is a called a carbon skeleton.
  6. What is an Isomer?
    An Isomer is a compound with the same formula but different structual arrangements.
  7. What is a functional Group?
    • Functional groups are part of the six chemical groups important in the chemistry of life. The first five are the functional groups. Here is the list:
    • Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, and Phosphate,
  8. What is the difference between Monomer and Polymenrs?
    • A monomer is a molecule that can be bonded with other simular molecules to from polymers.
    • Polymers are chains of molecules that are identical or simular joined together for from macromolecules.
  9. What is the differnence between dehydration and hydrolysis reactions?
    A dehydration reaction is when one that removes a molecule of water from the monomer.

    Hydrolysis is a reaction that breaks with water. Thought as a digestive process, molecules are broken down by the addition of water molecules.
  10. What are enzyemes?
    Are specialized macromolecules that speed up the chemical reactions in cells.
  11. What is a carbohydrate?
    Carbohydrates are a class of molecules that range from the small sugar molecules that disolve in soft drinks to the large polysaccharides, such as starch molecules we consume in potatoes and pasta.
  12. What is the difference between Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides?
    • Monosaccharides- single unit sugars (Glucose and Fructose)
    • Disaccharides- two unit sugars (Maltose- malt sugar)
    • Polysaccharides- Multiple unit sugars (Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose)
  13. What is the difference be glucose and frutose?
    Glucose and Frutose differ in the arrangement of their atoms. (In this case the position of the carbonyl groups)
  14. How are glycogen, starch, cellulose, and chitin are different?
    • All are long strands of sugar.
    • Glycogen- a form of glucose that aminals store.
    • Starch- the storage polysaccharide that in plants that consist of glucose monomers.
    • Cellulose- the most abundant organic compound found on earth. It is a polymer of glucose that is linked together in a differnt orientation.
    • Chitin- it is used by insects and crustaceans to build thier exoskeletons.
  15. What is the difference between hydrophobic and hydrophillic molecules?
    • Hydrophobic Molecules- Water insoluable
    • Hydrophollic Molecules- Water soluable
  16. What is the basic function of the different lipids:
    Fats, Phospholipids, and Steroids?
    Fats: Most function as energy storage molecules.

    • Phospholipids: the major components of cell membranes. stucturally simular to fats but they contain only two fatty acids attatched to glycerol instead of three.
    • Steroids: are lipids in which the carbon skeleton contains four fused rings.