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- Ruled more land than anyone since Charlemagne.
- Signed Peace of Augsburg.
- Brother Ferdinand inherited Austria & Holy Roman Empire.
Peace of Augsburg
- Allowed German princes to establish specific religion for their territory.
- Signed by Charles V.
Inherited Spain, Spanish Netherlands, and American colonies.
How can Phillip II's personality be described?
Shy, serious, hard-working, and suspicious.
How did Phillip increase his wealth?
- Siezes gold from Spanish galleons.
- (Allowed large standing army)
How did Phillip show his aggressiveness in Portugal?
Siezed Portuguese kingdom.
How was Europe impacted by religion during Phillip's time?
- Religious wars caused by the Reformation.
- Phillip launches Spanish Armada in 1588 to punish Protestant England and Queen Elizabeth I.
- The Reconquista had been completed 64 years before.
A 16th-century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the pope's authority.
The campaign to drive Muslims from Spain.
How did Phillip try to show his support of catholicism?
- Sent over 200 Spanish and Venetian ships to bring down the Ottoman Empire.
- Had a monastery in his palace, the Escorial.
How did Phillip try to appear strong?
- By using the power of his ships to defend Catholicism.
- Used his wealth to build the Escorial.
Why did the 16th & 17th centuries become a golden age in the arts for spain?
Spain's wealth allowed monarchs and nobles to become patrons of artists.
How is the work of El Greco described?
- Puzzling to Spainards.
- Showed Catholic faith of Spain.
Why is Diego Velazquez a noted painter?
- Reflected the pride of the Spanish monarchy.
- Court painter for Phillip IV.
Don Quixote de la Mancha
Novel about a poor Spanish nobleman who went a little crazy after reading too many books about heroic knights.
How did critics respond to Cervantes' Don Quixote de la Mancha?
- Miguel Cervantes was mocking chivalry.
- Idealistic person who longs for the romantic past because he is frustrated with his materialistic world.
How did Spain's wealth impact the nation?
More silver and gold made the value less.
Decline in value in money accompanied by a rise in the prices of goods and services.
Why were prices inflated in Spain?
- Growing population = increased demand for food/goods => merchants able to raise prices.
- Large amounts of silver => lower value; thus people needed more & more silver to buy things.
Why was Spain's economy declining?
- Expulsion of Jews & Moors (Muslims) = loss of valuable artisans & businessmen.
- Spanish nobles didn't pay taxes; lower classes paid most taxes which prevented gaining wealth to start new businesses.
- No middle class developed.
How did Spain make France, England, and the Netherlands rich?
- Old productions => expensive goods therefore people bought cheaper products from FR, ENG, Netherlands.
- Wealth flew out of SP.
How did Spain finance their wars?
- Borrowed $$ from GER & ITAL bankers.
- Silver sent abroad to pay debts resulted in bankruptcy three times!
Why didn't the Spanish and Dutch agree?
- Little in common.
- Calvinist, not Catholic in Spain.
- Successful middle class, unlike Spain.
How did Phillip punish the Netherlands for being protestants?
- Raised taxes.
- Tried to crush Protestantism => (led to) angry mobs attacking Catholic churches.
- Sent Spain army to crush rebellion => 1,500 Protestant deaths in single day.
How were the United Provinces of the Netherlands formed?
- 11 years fighting.
- 1579 - northern provinces declared independence.
- Southern provinces remained Catholic & loyal (modern-day Belgium).
How was the United Provinces different from other European states?
- Practiced religious tolerance.
- Not a kingdom, instead it was a republic (w/ elected governor supported by merchants & landholders).
How was the Netherlands similar to Florence?
Best banks, best artists supported by wealthy merchants.
How was Rembrandt van Rijn the greatest Dutch artist of the time?
- Portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants.
- Sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to focus.
How did Jan Vermeer paint?
Also used effects of light and dark.
Why was the Dutch able to focus on economic growth?
- Stable government.
- Sold grain at favorable prices to struggling areas of southern Europe.
- Dutch East India Company controlled Asian spice trade & Indian Ocean trade.
How did absolute monarchs justify their claiming total power over every aspect of life?
- They believed that they had the divine right.
- They were God's representative on Earth.
Why did monarchs gain power?
- Decline of feudalism.
- Rise of cities.
- Growing kingdoms w/ centralized authority.
- Growing middle class backed kings who supported business climates.
- Colonial wealth helped monarchs' ambitions.
- Declining Church power left vacuum.
How did religious & territorial conflicts between states impact Europe?
- Wars between states.
- Huge armies led to heavy taxation on a suffering population.
- Peasant revolts.
How did monarchs respond to the crises?
- Attempted to create order by increasing their power.
- Regulated everything: religious worship, social gatherings.
- Created government agencies to control economy.
- Attempted to rule without nobility and representative bodies.