Biology

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
101000
Filename:
Biology
Updated:
2011-09-11 12:09:10
Tags:
bio
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Description:
1st Test
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  1. Does salt conduct electricity?
    yes, contains ions
  2. What is found in over 1/2 our hormones, cholesterol and vitamin d?
    sterols/steriods (lipid)
  3. What has 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings?
    sterols/steriods (lipid)
  4. What do emulsifiers serperate?
    seperate lipid molecules from each other w/o breaking bond
  5. What do emulsifier allow lipids to mix with?
    water; due to polar heads
  6. What is the most functionally diverse of all all bio molecultes & play many roles in cells?
    Protein (polymer-it's monomer is AA)
  7. How many different types of AA's are there?
    20
  8. What gives each AA it's unique characteristics & changes between the 20 AA's?
    The R group
  9. Is the R group polar or non-polar? Electrically charged? Acidic or Basic?
    • -can be polar or non-polar
    • -yes, is electrically charged
    • -can be acidic or basic
  10. Are Amino Acids a monomer or polymer?
    Monomer
  11. What is a 2-3 AA called?
    Peptide
  12. What is a few-100 AA's called? Polypeptide or Protein?
    polypeptide
  13. What is 100's-1000's of AA's called?
    protein
  14. What is a peptide bond?
    -Polar Covalent Bond between AA's occurs via dehydration/loss of water
  15. What happens in the 1. level of protein stucture?
    order or sequence of AA "beads on a string" includes Peptide Bond
  16. What happens in the 2. level of protein structure?
    • Hydrogen bonding between non-adjacent AA
    • (this forms b/c AA's are plar)
    • causing either Helix or B pleated sheets
  17. What happens in the 3. level of protein structure?
    • Inlvolves interaction between the R groups of AA's
    • a) R groups can be attratcted to eachother (Polor to Polar) & repelled by eachother
    • b) R groups can also form Ionic & H - bonds
  18. What happens in the 4. level of protein structure?
    • Bonding of 2 or more polypeptides coming together (not all proteins have this)
    • EACH is NOW called: Polypeptide Domain
  19. In what levels of protein sturcture give protein it's specific shape & what is it called?
    • - levels 2-4
    • -Protein Confirmation
  20. What gives it's specific shape that is unique to each type of protein (twisting)? (also essential for its functioning)
    Protein Confirmation
  21. When a protien unfolds/untwists & looses its confirmation is thia Denaturation or Confirmation?
    Protein Denaturation
  22. What happens during protein denaturation?
    • -destroys levels 2-4 (untangles "beads")
    • -1. remains/peptide bond remains
    • -loss of function
    • -some denaturation is reversable some is not
  23. What are the 3 causes of denaturation?
    • -heat
    • -acid
    • -salt
  24. What are the 2 main types of proteins?
    Fiberous & Globular (aka: functional proteins)
  25. What are rope/strand like proteins, used for, have structure, very stable & less chemically reactive?
    • Fiberous
    • ie: collagen
  26. What type of protein does all the work, chemically reactive & NOT stable?
    • Globular
    • ie: enzymes
  27. What is the 4th Biolgical Protein?
    • Nucleic Acisds (polymer)
    • Nucleotides (monomer)
  28. What 3 things do all nucleotides consist of?
    • -ribose sugar-5 carbon sugar
    • -@ least one phosphate group
    • -on (of many) nitrogenous bases
  29. Is ATP a nucleotide or nucleic acid?
    Nucleotide(monomer)
  30. Are nucleic acids a monomer or polymer?
    polymer
  31. What is the universal energy compound of cells?
    ATP
  32. What does DNA stand for?
    Deroxyribo Nucleic Acid
  33. What is double stranded found in nucleus & has genetic material/manuscript of all cells?
    DNA
  34. What does RNA stand for?
    Ribo Nucleic Acid
  35. What is single stranded found through out cell, in nucleus & copies DNA?
    RNA
  36. What is the Cell Theory?
    all organisms need to consist of @ least one cell & all new cells come from pre-existing cells
  37. What consist of either just one cell or of group/chain/cluster of identical cells?
    Unicellular organisms
  38. What kingdoms are unicellular organisms part of?
    Eubacteria, Archaebacteria & Protista

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