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What is psychology?
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
- -Anything an organism does
- -Any action we can observe and record (smile, yell, sweat, talk, etc)
Mental Processes are...
-Internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior, sensations, perseptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings.
What is the science of psychology?
-A way of asking and answering questions relating to human behavior.
-Evaluates competing ideas regarding human behavior using careful observation and rigorous analysis.
Psychology was not always a science. What did psychology begin with?
Prescientific Psychology. In India, Buddah pondered...
how sensations and persceptions combined to form ideas.
In China, Confucius stressed...
the power of ideas and of an educated mind.
Hebrew scriptures linked...
Mind and emotion to the body
Socrates & Plato believed that...
- - the mind and body are separate
- - the mind continues to exist after death
- - knowledge is born within us
Aristotle suggested that...
- - the soul is not seperate from the body
- - knowledge (ideas) grow from experience
Rene Descartes, like Plato believed in...
soul (mind) body separation but speculated on how the immaterial mind and the physical body communicated.
Francis Bacon was the fouder of...
modern science, especially the experimental method
John Locke believed...
that the mind is a tabula rasa or blank sheet at birth and experience writes on it.
What point of view do we hold today regarding the mind and body?
Monistic- the mind and body are one.
Modern empiricism is
The view that knowledge originates in experience (Locke) and that science should, therefore, rely on obeservation and experimentation (Bacon).
Which person/groups held the belief that mind and body are connected?
- - The Hebrews
- - Aristole
- - Augustine
Which person/groups held the belief that mind and body are distinct or seperate?
- - Socrates
- - Plato
- - Descartes
Who believed that ideas are inborn?
Who believed that the mind is a blank slate?
Who created reation time experiments and the 1st Psychology Laboratory?
Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Bradford Tichener
What is introspection & who developed this method?
it is looking inward; self relfection. Developed by Tichener.
early school of psychology introduced by Tischener that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.
What is functionalism and who developed it?
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish. (William James)
Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung emphazised...
the importance of the unconscious mind and its effects on human behavior.
Watson & Skinner studied...
- -overt behavior as a subject matter of scientific psychology.
- -all behavior is as a result of learning
What is behaviorisim?
the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
Maslow & Rogers emphasized...
current environmental influences on our growth potential and our needs for love and acceptance.
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs shows that
a person is at their highest potential when they meet all these needs from the bottom to the top. Bottom physiological needs.
Top is self-actualization
What are the two largest psychological associations & societies?
- American Psychological Association (APA)- largest
- The British Psychological Society
What is the debate over Nature VS Nurture?
What is more important, your genetics or your environment?
Darwin believes that
"survival of the fittest". Nature selects those traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
What are the three main levels of analysis in the Biopsychosocial Approach?
- Biological Influences
- Psychological Influences
- Social-Cultural Influences
- These three things make up who we are, how we behave and think.
Psychology's current perspectives...
How different psychologists look at people, their environment, genes, etc.
Neuroscience psychologists study:
How the body and brain enables emotions.
Evolutionary psychologists study:
How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes.
Behavior genetics psychologists study:
How much our genes and our enviroments influence our individual differences.
Psychodynamic psychologists study:
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts.
Behavioral psychologists study:
How we learn observable responses.
Cognitive psychologists study:
How we encode, process, store and retrieve information.
Social-Cultural psychologists study:
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
What are the 5 different subfields in research psychology?
- 1. Biological
- 2. Developmental
- 3. Cognitive
- 4. Personality
- 5. Social
Which subfield in psychology does the most amount of research?
What are the 3 applied subfields in psychology and which is the largest field?
- 1. Industrial/Organizational
- 2. Counseling
- 3. Clinical
is the largest.