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  1. empiricism
    the belief that acurate knowledge can be acquired through observation
  2. scientific method
    a set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence
  3. theory
    a hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon
  4. hypothesis
    a flasifiable prediction made by a theory
  5. why cant evidence ever prove a theory right?
    your observations can only remain consistent to improve confidence but there is still an opportunity for someone to prove it wrong
  6. what three things make people difficult to study?
    • complexity- nothing is as complex as the brain.
    • variability- no individual is ever the same.
    • reactivity- people act different when being studied
  7. what two things does measurement require?
    we must define the property we wish to measure and then find a way to detect it
  8. empirical method
    a set of rules and techniques for observation
  9. operational definition
    a description of a property in concrete, measurable terms
  10. measure
    a device that can decrt the condition to which an operational dfinition refers
  11. electromyograph (EMG)
    a device tht measures muscle contractions underthe surface of a persons skin
  12. validity
    the extenct to which a measurement and property and conceptually related.
  13. reliability
    the tendency for a measure to produce teh same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing.
  14. power
    the ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition
  15. demand characteristics
    those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think they should
  16. naturalistic observation
    a technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments.
  17. the three properties of a good measure
    • validity
    • reliabilty
    • power
  18. how can demand characteristics be avoided
    observe people without there knowledge
  19. double blind
    an observatino whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed
  20. frequency distribution
    a graphical representation of measurements arranged by the number of tmes each measurement was made
  21. normal distribution
    a mathematically definded frequency distribution in which most measurments are concentrated around the middle
  22. mode
    teh value of the most frequently observed measurement
  23. mean
    the average value of all the measurements
  24. median
    the value that is in the middle
  25. what are the two major kinds of descriptive statistics?
    • central tendancy
    • variablility
  26. what are two measures of variablity?
    • range
    • standard deviation
  27. range
    the value of the largest measurement in a frequency distribution minus the value of the smallest measurement
  28. standard deviation
    a statistic that describes the average difference between teh measurements in a frequecy distribution and the mean of that distribution
  29. variable
    a property whose value can vary across individuals or over time
  30. correlation
    two variable are said to be correlated whn variations in teh value of one variable are synchronized with variations in the vaalue of the other
  31. correlation coefficient
    a measure of the direction and strength of a correlation which is signified by the letter r
  32. how can correlations be measured?
    the value can range from -1 to 1
  33. natural correlation
    a correlation observed in the world around us.
  34. third variable correlation
    the act that two variables are correlated only because each is causally related to a third variable.
  35. matched samples
    a technique whereby the participants in two groups are identical in terms of a third variable
  36. matched pairs
    a technique whereby each particpant is identical to one other participant in terms of a third variable
  37. experiment
    a technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables
  38. manipulation
    the creation of an artificial pattern of variation in order to determine its causal powers
  39. independent variable
    the variable that is manipulated in an experiment
  40. experimental group
    the group of peope who are treated in a particular way, as compared to the control group, in an experiment
  41. control group
    the group of people who are not treated in teh particular way that the experimental group is treated in an experiment.
  42. dependent variable
    the variable that is measured in a study
  43. self selection
    a problem that occurs when anything about a person determines whether he or she will be included in teh experimental or control group
  44. what are the three main steps in doin an experiment
    • first we perform a manipulation. independent variable, experimental group, control group
    • we measure the dependent variable
    • we check to see if the manipulation produced changes
  45. radom assignment
    a procedure that uses random event to asign people to the experimental or control group.
  46. internal validity
    the characteristic of an experiment that esablishes the causal relationship between variables
  47. external validity
    a property of an experiment in which the variables have been operationally defined in a normal typical way.
  48. population
    the complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured
  49. sample
    the partial collecion of people drawn from a population
  50. case method
    a method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual
  51. random sampling
    a technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
  52. informed consent
    a written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail
  53. what are three features of ethical research?
    • informed consent
    • freedom from coercion
    • protection from harm
    • risk benefit analysis
    • deception
    • debriefing
    • confidentiality
  54. debriefing
    a verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study
  55. what steps do psychologists take to protect nonhuman subjects?
    • must be supervised by trained psychologist
    • must make efforts to minimize discomfort of animal
    • may use pain and stress only when other procedure is unavialable
    • animals must be in proper anesthesia to minimize animals pain
Card Set:
2011-09-11 23:38:00
psych test

test one
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