kati chart

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kati chart
2011-09-11 16:35:34
kati chart

kati chart
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  1. hydroxyl
    -name of compound
    -functional properties
    • - structure -OH
    • -name of compound alcohols (usually ends in -ol)
    • -example is the pic of ethanol, the alcohol present in alcoholic beverages
    • -functional properties id that it is polar because the electrons spend more time near the electronegative oxygen atom. also, it can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugar.
  2. carbonyl
    • -the first is acetone an example of simplest ketone
    • -the second is propanal an example of aldehyde
    • -structure is(>CO) a carbondouble bonded to an oxygen
    • -name of the compound is ketones and aldehydes
    • --ketones have a carbonyl group within the carbon skelaton
    • --aldehydes has carbonyl groupnat the end f the carbon skelaton
    • -funtional properties are a ketone and an aldahyde may be structural isomers with different properties, as is the case for acetone and propanal.
    • -also, these two groups are also found in sugars which gives rise to two major groups of sugars: aldoses (containing an aldehyde and ketoses (containing a ketone)
  3. carboxyl
    -name of compound
    -functional properties
    • -(-cooh) structure is a carbonyl witht he carbon also connected to a hydroxyl the group is called carboxyl
    • -name of ompound is carboxylic acids, or organic acids
    • -an example is acetic acid, which gives vinegar its sour taste
    • -funtional properties are it has acidic properties (is a source of hydrogen ions) because the covalent bonds between hydrogen and oxygen are polar
    • -aslo is found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1- and called a carboxylate ion (here, specifically, the acetate ion.
  4. amino
    -name of compund
    -functional properties
    -structure (-NH2)
    • -ony need H on top of the middle C.
    • -structure is (-NH2)
    • -name of compound is Amines
    • example is Glycine, because it also has a carboxy group (basically a carboxyl with a N instead of the H in the middle), glycine is both amine and carboxyic acid; compounds with both groups are called amino acids
    • -funtional properties are it acts as a base and picks up H from the surrouding solution (water in living organisms)
    • -also, ionized at a charge of 1 plus under cellular conditions
  5. sulfhydryl
    name of compund
    -functional properties
    • --structure (-SH) like glycine except instead of C in middle havinf 2 H it has CH2-SH
    • -name of compound is Thiols
    • -example is cysteine. it is an important sulfur containing amino acid
    • -funtional properties are two slfhydryl groups can react , forming a covalent bond.. This cross-link helps stabilize protein strcture
    • -also, cross-linking of cysteines in hair proteins maintains the curliness or straightness of hair. Straight hair can "permanently" curled by shaping it around curlers, then breaking and reforming the cross-linking bonds.
  6. phosphate
    -name of compound
    -functional properties
    • -structure is P with 2 negaive O, a double bond to an O, and an O that will connect to the rest of molecule.
    • -name of compound is Organic Phosphates
    • -example is Glycerol phosphate, in addition to taking part in many important chemical reactions in calls, glycerol phosphate provides the backbone of phospholipids, the most prevalant molecule in cell membranes
    • -functional properties are it contributes negative charge to the molecule of which it is a part (2- when at the endof the molecule, as below;1- when located internally in a chain of phosphates.
    • -also, has the potential to react with water, releasing energy.

    • OH OH H llO
    • H-C-C-C-O-P-O
    • H H H O
  7. methyl
    -name of compound
    -name of compound
    -functional properties