Module 2

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Module 2
2011-09-11 19:36:18

Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
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  1. Hindsight bias is
    the tendancy to believe, after learning the outcome, that one would have forseen it.
  2. What is it called when humans tend to think we know more than we actually do?
  3. What 3 things make up the scientific attitude?
    • 1. Curiosity- passion for exporation
    • 2. skepticism- doubting and questioning
    • 3. humility- humbleness to accept when wrong
  4. Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions but examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions is...
    Critical thinking
  5. The scientific method was used to
    construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations.
  6. An explanation that integrates principles, organizes and predicts hehaviors or events is
  7. A hypothesis is
    A testable prediction, often introduced by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise a theory.
  8. Research is used to
    confirm a hypothesis
  9. What steps are involved in the research process?
    Theories lead to hypothesis which lead to research and observations which generate or refine the theory.
  10. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?
    Yes. The goal is to find underlying principles that govern behavior.
  11. Does behavior depend on one's culture?
    Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary accross cultures, the underlying processes are much the same.
  12. Does behavior vary with gender?
  13. Why do psychologists study animals?
    to get an understanding of many behaviors that may have common biology across animals and humans.
  14. Is it ethical to experiment on animals?
    Yes. Researchers have to follow ethical guidelines that are governed by the IRB (Institutional Review Board)
  15. Is it ethical to experiment on people?
    Yes as long as it does not involve any kind of physical or psychological harm that is beyond normal levels encountered in life.