A grand theory of human development that holds that irrationial, unconcious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.
The lips, tongue, and gums are the focus of pleasurable sensations in the baby's body, and sucking and feeding are the most stimulating activities.
Birth to 1 year.
The anus is the focus of pleasurable sensations in the baby's body, and toilet training th emost important activity.
The phallus, or penis, is the most important body part, and pleasure is derived from genital stimulation. Boys are proud of their penises; girls wonder why they don't have one.
Not really a stage, latency is an interlude during which sexual needs are quiet and children put psychic energy into conventional activities like schoolwork and sports.
The genitals are the focus of pleasurable sensations, and the young person seeks secual stimulation and sexual satisfaction in heterosexual relationships.
Lasting genital stage. The goal of a healthy life is "to love and to work."
Babies either trust that others will care for their basic needs, including nourishment, warmth, cleanliness, and physical contact, or develop mistrust about the care of others.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Children either become self-sufficient in many activities, including toileting, feeding, walking, exploring, and talking or doubt about their own abilities.
Autounomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Children either want to undertake many adultlike activities or internalize the limits and prohibitions set by parents. They feel either adventurous or guilty.
Intiative vs. Guilt
Children busily learn to be competent and productive in mastering new skills or feel inferior, unable to do anything as well as they wish they could.
Industry vs. Inferiority
Adolescence try to figure out "Who am I?" They establish sexual, political, and vocational identities or are confused about what roles to play.
Identity vs. Role-Confusion
Young adults seek companionship and love or become isolated from others because they feel rejected and disappointment.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Middle ages adults contribute to the next generation for meaningful work. Creative activities and or raising a family or they stagnate
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Older adults try to make sense out of their lives. Either seeing life as a meaningful whole or despairing as goals never reached.
Integrity vs. Despair
Believed stages in development were characterized by sexual pleasure centered on a particular part of the body.
Believed stages in development were characterized by a challenging developmental crisis, empahsizing family and culture.
Emphasizes unconscious wishes and urges. Unknown to the person but powerful all the same.
The Unconscious; Psychoanalytic Theory
Holds that the unconscious not only is unknownable but also maybe a destructive fiction that keeps people from changing.
The Unconcious; Behaviorism
Holds that observable behavior is a symptom, not the cause-the tip of iceberg, with the bulk of the problem submerged.
Observable Behavior; Psychoanalytic Theory
Looks only at observable behavior-what a person does rather than what a person thinks, feels, or imagines
Observable Behavior; Behavorism
Stresses that early childhood, including infancy, is critical; even if a person does not remember what happened, the early legacy lingers throughout life.
Importance of childhood; Psychoanalytic Theory
Holds that current conditioning is crucial; early habits and patterns can be unlearned, even reveresed, if appropriate reinforcements and punishments are used.
Importance of Childhood; Behaviorism
Holds that most aspects of human development are beyond the reach of scientific experiment; uses ancient myths, the words of disturbed adults, dreams, play, and poetry as raw material
Scientific Status; Psychoanalytic Theory
Is proud to be a science, dependent on verifiable data and carefully controlled experiments; discards ideas that sound good but are not proven.
Scientific Status; Behaviorism
A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. Also, called learning theory because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned.
The learning process in which a meaningful stimulus is connected with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before conditioning.
The learning process by which a perticular action is followed by something desired or by something unwanted.
A technique for conditioning behavior in which that behavior is followed by something desired, such as good for a hungry animal or a welcoming smile for a lonely person.
According to behaviorism, the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place. Emphasizes the importance of repeated practice.
An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behavior. Even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people.
Social Learning Theory
The central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actions of others and then copied them.
In social learning theory, the belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectiviely after the social context.
A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over times. According to this theory our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs and behaviors.
Infants use senses and motor abilities to understand the world. Learning is active; there is no conceptual or reflective thought.
Children think magically and poetically using language to understand the world. Thinking is egocentric, causing children to perceive the world from their own perspective.
Children can understand and apply logical operations, or principles, to interpret experiences objectively and rationally. Their thinking is limited to what they can personally see, hear, touch, and experience.
Adolescents and adults think about abstractions and hypothetical concepts and reason analytically, not just emotionally. They can be logical about things they have never experienced.
In cognitive theory, a state of mental balance in which people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas.
New experiences are interpreted to fit into old ideas.
Old ideas are restructured to include new experiences.
An emergent theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces.
In sociocultural theory, a technique in which skilled mentors help novices learn not only by providing instruction but also by allowing direct, shared involvement in the activity.
Guided Participation (bike)
In sociocultural theory, a metaphorical area surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help.
Zone of Proximal Development
An emergent theory of develpoment that considers both the genetic origins of behavior and the direct systematic influence that enviromental forces have, over time, on genes.
The process by which humans and other species gradually adjust to their environment. This process is based on the frequency with which a particular genetic trait in a population increases or decreases over generations; that frequency depends on whether or not the trait contributes to the survival and reproductive ability of members of the population.
A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of obervations that have been made about human growth. A developmental theory provides a framework for explaining the patterns and problems of development.
The approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory.