Module 3

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Module 3
2011-09-11 20:18:51

Research Strategies: How psychologists ask and answer questions.
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  1. Description:
    • - the case study
    • - the survey
    • - Naturalistic observation
  2. Correlation:
    • -Correlation and causation
    • - illusory correlation
    • - perceiving order in random events
  3. Experimentation:
    • - exploring cause and effect
    • -evaluating therapies
    • -independent and dependent variables
  4. Statistical reasoning:
    • - Describing data
    • - Making inferences
  5. What is a case study and why are they used?
    A technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles. It is usually used to study rare or unique cases.
  6. A form of case study where the therapist investigates the problems associates with a client is
    Clinical Study
  7. A technique for acertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative or a random group is
  8. False consensus effect is
    a tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
  9. What is naturalistic observation?
    observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
  10. Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation all describe what?
  11. Correlation is
    when one trait or behavior accompanies another.
  12. The statistical measure of the relationship between two variables is
    • correlation coefficient
    • ranges from -1 to +1
  13. A scatterplot is
    a graph of dots which represent two variables. The slope of the points depicts the direction (neg or pos) and the amount of scatter the strength of relationship.
  14. illusory correlation is
    the perception of a relationship where none exists.
  15. A research method where the experimenter manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process is called...
    an experiment
  16. What is an independent variable?
    a factor manipulated by an experimenter in order to study it's effect.
  17. What is a dependent variable?
    a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. Usually a behavior or mental process.
  18. The Double-blind procedure is
    when both the experimenter and the research participants are ignorant to which participant received the actual treatment or the placebo.
  19. What are the three different research methods?
    • Descriptive
    • Correlational
    • Experimental
  20. Statistical procedures
    analyze and interpret data and let us see what the unaided eye misses.
  21. What are the three measures of central tendency and what do they mean?
    • Mode- The most frequently occuring score
    • Mean- The arithmetic average of scores
    • Median- The middle score in a a rank ordered distribution.
  22. What are the two measures of variation and what do they mean?
    • Range- The difference between the highest and lowest scores
    • Standard deviation- A computer measure of how much scores vary around the mean.
  23. What is statistical significance?
    A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance.