Module 3
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Description:
  the case study
  the survey
  Naturalistic observation

Correlation:
 Correlation and causation
  illusory correlation
  perceiving order in random events

Experimentation:
  exploring cause and effect
 evaluating therapies
 independent and dependent variables

Statistical reasoning:
  Describing data
  Making inferences

What is a case study and why are they used?
A technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles. It is usually used to study rare or unique cases.

A form of case study where the therapist investigates the problems associates with a client is
Clinical Study

A technique for acertaining the selfreported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative or a random group is
survey

False consensus effect is
a tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.

What is naturalistic observation?
observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation all describe what?
behaviors

Correlation is
when one trait or behavior accompanies another.

The statistical measure of the relationship between two variables is
 correlation coefficient
 ranges from 1 to +1

A scatterplot is
a graph of dots which represent two variables. The slope of the points depicts the direction (neg or pos) and the amount of scatter the strength of relationship.

illusory correlation is
the perception of a relationship where none exists.

A research method where the experimenter manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process is called...
an experiment

What is an independent variable?
a factor manipulated by an experimenter in order to study it's effect.

What is a dependent variable?
a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. Usually a behavior or mental process.

The Doubleblind procedure is
when both the experimenter and the research participants are ignorant to which participant received the actual treatment or the placebo.

What are the three different research methods?
 Descriptive
 Correlational
 Experimental

Statistical procedures
analyze and interpret data and let us see what the unaided eye misses.

What are the three measures of central tendency and what do they mean?
 Mode The most frequently occuring score
 Mean The arithmetic average of scores
 Median The middle score in a a rank ordered distribution.

What are the two measures of variation and what do they mean?
 Range The difference between the highest and lowest scores
 Standard deviation A computer measure of how much scores vary around the mean.

What is statistical significance?
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance.