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2011-09-12 01:39:27

Biology Chapters 1,2, and 3
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  1. The scientific method
    A set of rules that scientistd follow for formulating, testing , and eliminating hpotheses
  2. Homeostasis
    Maintaining a stable internal environment in a changing external enviroment
  3. Members of the Kingdom Monera are ____ and generally ____
    prokaryotic, unicellular
  4. Evidence for evolution was provided by
    Charles Darwin
  5. Which of the following is an unusual property of water?
    A. It takes a relatively small amount of water to raise its temperature significantly
    B. It expands when it frezzes and highest density at 4C
    C. Given the molecular weight of water, it has a relatively low density.
    D. Few Compounds will dissolve in it.
    E. In order to boil, it must gain heat.
    B. It expands when it freezes and has highest density at 4 degrees C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following is an example of a prokaryotic organism?
    A. Yeast
    B. An otter
    C. Helicobacter pylori
    D. Dandelions
    C. Helicobater pylori
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Reductionism
    We can better understand the whole by understanding it parts
  8. Which of the following is not typical of a prokaryotic organism?
    A. Contains no nucleus.
    B. Is single-celled
    C. Contains genetic material
    D. Has membrane-bound organelles.
    D. Has membrane-bound organelles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. What does water's high heat capacity mean to organisms?
    • 1. Internal temperatures resisting change
    • 2. Large bodies of water resist freezing solid in winter, keeping homes and food sources available for aquatic organisms.
    • 3. Sweat can carry excess heat out of our bodies.
  10. Cohesion causes _____in water
    High amount of surface tension
  11. Which of the following indicates the correct progression of increasing organization?
    1. amino acid, polypeptide, protein
    2. amino acid, protein, polypeptide
    3. Polypeptide, amino acid, protein
    4. Protein, Polypeptide, amino acid
    1. Amino acid, polypeptide, protien
  12. The nitorgenous base ______ is found in RNA but not in DNA.
  13. DNA
    Genetic information that is stored in long thin molecules
  14. Steatopygea
    A trait in the women of Kalahari desert which promotes survival of developing fetus and nursing infants
  15. The correct order of the five kingdoms of living things
    • 1.Monera
    • 2. Protista
    • 3.Fungi
    • 4.Animalia/Metazoa
    • 5.Pantae/Metaphyta
  16. Increasing levels of organization within an organism
    Cell, tissue, organ, organ system
  17. In a solution that is basic, the number of
    OH is greater than the number of H
  18. All carbs are....
    1. amino acids
    2. contain N, P, S
    3. organic acids
    4. composed of atoms of C, H, O
    5. composed of atoms of C, H, O, N
    4. Are composed of C, H, O
  19. A polysaccharide
    • 1. is composed of many monosaccharides that have been linked together
    • 2. may be straight and unbranhed or highly branched
    • 3. is most likely made of glucose molecules if it is one of the natural poly...
    • 4. may be insoluble because of its large size and structure
  20. The nitrogenous base _____ is found in DNA but not in RNA.
  21. DNA and RNA are built from
  22. Life can be defined as
    having abililty to metabolize and reproduce
  23. Three domains into which organisms are grouped
    • 1. Archaea
    • 2. Eukarya
    • 3. Eubacteria
  24. All of the members of which are multicelluar?
    1. Protista
    2. Archaea
    3. Eukarya
    4. Eubacteria
    A. Animalia
  25. Homeostasis
    Maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment
  26. The five Kingdoms
    • 1. Monera
    • 2. Protista
    • 3. Fungi
    • 4. Metaphyta
    • 5. Metazoa
  27. Helicobacter pylori
    Bacteria that infects the stomach and causes 80% of stomach ulcers
  28. Barry Marshall
    Scientist who discovered truth about stomach ulcers
  29. Scientific Method
    A set of formal rules for expressing, testing, and eliminating ideas or hypotheses
  30. Hypothesis
    A possible explanation for the way a process works that alloes us to make predictions
  31. Testable
    • 1. Someone can devise the hypothesis if it were incorrect
    • 2. We can make a prediction that we can test by experiment
  32. Experiment
    A way of testing a hypothesis ot of searching for some unknown effect carried out under controlled conditions
  33. Atoms-molecules-macromolecules-cell organelles-cells-organs-organisms-populations-community-ecosystem-biospheres
  34. Thin filament-actin
    Thick filament-myosin
  35. Theory
    A system of statements and ideas that explains a group of facts or phenomena
  36. Characteristics of living things
    • 1. have parts
    • 2. made up of cells
    • 3. perform chemical reactions
    • 4. obtain energy from surroundings
    • 5. respond to environment
    • 6. mature over time
    • 7. reproduce
    • 8. common evolutionary history
  37. Homeostasis
    • 1. Process reisisting change
    • 2. detecting change, counteracting said change
  38. The ph of blood
  39. Cell
    timy mass of water, protein, and other molecules all surrounded by a thin membrane
  40. Eukaryotic cells
    contain a nucleus and organelles
  41. Nucleus
    a package of genetic material enclosed in a thin membrane
  42. Prokaryotic cells
    No nuclei and no membrane-enclosed organelles but they have genetic material
  43. Monera
    • 1. Bacteria
    • 2. Lack cell organells
    • 3. Asexual reproduction
    • 4. No nucleus
  44. Protista
    • 1. Protezoa, green algea
    • 2. Has nuclues
    • 3. Has all cell organells
    • 4. Sexual reproduction
    • 5. No sex organs
  45. Fungi
    • 1. Puccinia
    • 2. Heterotrophs
    • 3. Feed on organic matter
    • 4. Produce sexually
    • 5. No sex organs
  46. Metaphyta
    • 1. Plants
    • 2. Has sex organs
    • 3. Has embryos
    • 4. Autotrophs
  47. Metazoa
    • 1. Sexual reproduction
    • 2. Has sex organs
    • 3. Multicellular
    • 4. Has embryos
    • 5. Heterotrophs
  48. 1859 "On the Origin of Species"
    Charles Darwin
  49. Adaptations
    Special structures or behaviors that fit individuals for life in a particular environment
  50. Natural Selection
    the superior reproduction of individuals that have certain inherited traits compared to other individuals who lack those traits
  51. Artifical Selection
    depends on human preferences
  52. Nitroglycerin
    In small doses, can lower blood pressure
  53. Chemistry
    The science dealing with the properties and the transformation of all forms of matter
  54. H, C, O
    All organisms are made up of these
  55. Electrons
    negative charges
  56. Protons
    Positive charges
  57. Neutrons
    Neutral charge
  58. Covalent bond
    Two atoms share one or more electrons
  59. Ionic bond
    When positive and negative electrons are attracted to each other
  60. Sodium Chloride-salt
    • Sodium-gives electron
    • Chloride-takes electron
  61. Polar
    • have an uneven distributions of electrical charges
    • have a positive and negative pole
  62. Hydrophilic
    polar molecules that mix well with water -alcohol
  63. Hydrophobic
    Nonpolar molecules that fear water- wax and leaves
  64. Characteristics of water
    • 1. Highest density at 4 degrees C
    • 2. Cohesion
    • 3. High heat capactiy
    • 4. The ability to dissolve other substances
    • 5. Adhesion
  65. Cohesion
    An attraction between molecules of the same substance
  66. Surface Tension
    the tendency of a substance to form a smooth round surface
  67. Adhesion
    • When water clings to other surfaces
    • water is sticky
  68. Hydrogen bonds
    a weak attraction between two polar molecules
  69. Cohesion-clings to itself
    Adhersion-clings to others
  70. Solvent
    any fluid in which substances dissolve in
  71. Phospholipids make up the membranes surrounding all cells
  72. Hydroxide ion
    deprived water molecule with a negative charge
  73. Hydronium ion
    extra water molecule with a positive charge
  74. Acid
    • A molecule that can give up a hydrogen ion
    • lower than 7
  75. Base
    • A molecule that can accept a hydrogen ion
    • higher that 7
    • Hydrogen Oxide ion
  76. pH
    The number of Hydrogen ions ni a given amount of liquid
  77. Macromolecules
    • Consist of small molecules linked together in long chains
    • 1. Carbs 2. Proteins 3. Fat 4. Nucleatic Acids
  78. Organic Molecules
    Carbon and Hydrogen containing compounds
  79. Building block molecules
    • Sugars
    • Amino Acids
    • Nucleotides
    • Lipids
  80. Sugars join together to form polysaccharides
  81. Amino Acids form polypeptide chains which make up protiens
  82. Nucleotides form long chains called Nucleic acids-DNA
  83. Lipid membranes form the membranes that surround all cells and regualte their interaction with their environment
  84. Enzymes
    Help make or break chemical bonds
  85. Lipids often serve as energy stores
  86. Fatty Acid
    a major component of the membranes tha tenclose cells
  87. Saturated
    Single bonds that contains the maxium amount of hydrogen atoms
  88. Unsaturated
    when fatty acids contain one or more double bondsbetween adjacent carbons, and is therefore missin hydrogen atoms
  89. Cell membrane
    60% of this is fat
  90. Monosaccharides
    the smallest sugars are simple sugars-glucose and fructose
  91. Diaccharide
    Two sugars can be linked -sucrose (table sugar)
  92. Steatopygea
    gentic trait in pregnant women in the desert
  93. Atheroscerosis
    is caused when plaque deposists narrow and block our arteries
  94. Polysaccharides
    the longest chain of sugars
  95. Glycogen
    A way animals store energy
  96. Starch
    The way plants store energy
  97. Carbohydrates
    All sugars and polysaccharides
  98. Purines-two ringed
    • Guanine (G)
    • Adenine (A)
  99. Pyrimidines-one ringed
    • Cytosine (C)
    • Thymine (T) -DNA
    • Uracil (U)-RNA
  100. The long chains of nucleotides in the information molecules DNA and RNA are linked--sugar-phosphate-sugar--by phosphodiester bonds
  101. ATP
    the common currency of energy
  102. RNA
    • single backbone
    • interpreter, carries informaiton from DNA to rest of cell
  103. DNA
    • two parrell backbones
    • library of information for every cell
    • genetic code that provides information
  104. Nucleotide
    • 1. Sugar-ribose
    • 2. Phosphate
    • 3. Nitrogenous base
  105. Enzymes
    • Biological molecules that speed up reactions between molecules but are not themselves altered
    • Copy and repair DNA, help extract energy from sugars, digest our food
    • proteins
  106. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    • 1st to see bacteria
    • 1st to use a microscope
    • 1st to see cells
  107. Robert Hooke
    1665 Micrographia
  108. Cell Theory
    • 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells
    • 2. Basic unit of all organisms
    • 3. Cells come from other cells
  109. Cell Wall
    • Protects and supports cell
    • All but animal
  110. Plasma/Cell Membrane
    • Regulates communication with other cells and movement of materials in and out of cell
    • All
  111. Membrane-enclosed Nucleus
    • Isolates DNA from cytoplam
    • All but eukaryotes
  112. DNA
    encodes information
  113. RNA
    Constructs proteins from information in DNA
  114. Nucleolus
    Synthesizes ribosomes
  115. Ribosomes
    Synthesizes proteins
  116. ER
    modifies proteins and makes lipids
  117. Golgi complex
    Tags proteins and lipids packages them for export
  118. Lysome
    • Contain digestive enzymes
    • keep cell clean
  119. Mitochondria
    • Powerhouse of cell
    • Uses oxygen
    • Synthesizes ATP
  120. Chloroplast
  121. Central Vacuole
    • Provides turgor pressure
    • contains water and waste
    • controls pressure in the cell
  122. Cytoskeleton
    Shapes, Strengthens, and moves
  123. Flagellum, cilium
    Moves cell through fluid or fluid past cell
  124. Phagocytosis
    • The process by which cells take in and consume large particles of solid food
    • liquid-philocytosis
    • endocytosis
  125. Major roles of the cell membrane
    • 1. Seperate inside from outside
    • 2. Regulate consisantecy of enclosed space
    • 3. work bench
    • 4. participate in energy conversions
  126. Fluid mosaic model-the basis for understanding all cell membranes
    • 1. Membrane is a lipid bilayer
    • 2. Proteins are dispersed through membrane and contribute to function and structure
    • 3. fluis and both protein and lipid molecules move freely in the plane
    • 4. hydrophobic
    • 5. membrane proteins help transprt specific molecules across the membrane