Medical Terminology

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Author:
LivyLeigh
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101150
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Medical Terminology
Updated:
2011-09-11 22:17:10
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Chapter 14
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GI system
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  1. anorexia
    loss of appetite
  2. aphagia
    inability to swallow
  3. ascites
    accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
  4. buccal
    in the cheek
  5. constipation
    infrequent or incomplete bowel movements characterized by hardened, dry stool that is difficult to pass (constipo= to press together)
  6. diarrhea
    frequent loose or liquid stools
  7. dyspepsia
    indesgestion (peptin= to digest)
  8. dysphagia
    difficulty in swallowing
  9. eructation
    belch
  10. flatulence
    gas in the stomach or intestines (flatus = a blowing)
  11. halitosis
    bad breath (halitus= breath)
  12. hematochezia
    red blood in the stool (chezo = defecate)
  13. hematemesis
    vomiting blood
  14. hepatomegaly
    enlargement of the liver
  15. hyperbilirubinemia
    excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood
  16. icterus/ jaundice
    yellow discloration of the skin, sclera (white of the eye) and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood (jaundice= yellow)
  17. melena
    dark-colored, tarry stool caused by old blood
  18. nausea
    sick in the stomach
  19. steatorrhea
    feces containing fat
  20. sublingual/ hypoglossal
    under the tongue
  21. stomatitis
    inflammation of the mouth
  22. sialoadentitis
    inflammation of the salivary gland
  23. parotitis (parotiditis)
    inflammation of the parotid gland; also called mumps
  24. cheilitis
    inflammation of the lip
  25. glossitis
    inflammation of the tongue
  26. ankyloglossia
    tongue tied; a defect of the tongue characterized by a short thickening frenulum (ankyl/o = crooked or stiff)
  27. gingivitis
    inflammation of the gums
  28. esophogeal varices
    swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus especially suseptible to ulceration and hemorrage
  29. esophagitis
    inflammation of the esophagus
  30. gastritis
    inflammation of the stomach
  31. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus, often as a result of abnormal fucntion fo the lower esophageal sphincter; causes burning pain in the esophagus
  32. pyloric stenosis
    narrowed condition of the pylorus
  33. peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
    a sore on the mucus membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the GI system exposed to gastric juices; commonly caused by infection with Heliobacter pylori bacteria (pept/o = to digest)
  34. gastric ulcer
    ulcer located in the stomach
  35. duodenal ulcer
    ulcer located in the duodenum
  36. gasteroenteritis
    inflammation of teh stomach and small intestine
  37. enteritis
    inflammation of the small intestine
  38. ileitis
    inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine
  39. colitis
    inflammation of the colon (large intestine)
  40. ulcerative colitis
    chronic inflammation of the colon along with ulcerations
  41. diverticulum
    a by-way; an abnormal side pocket in the GI tract usually related to lack of dietary fiber
  42. diverticulosis
    presence of diverticula in the GI tract, especially in the bowel
  43. diverticulitis
    inflammation of diverticula
  44. dysentry
    inflammaiton of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools, most often caused by bacteria or protozoa (e.g. amebic dysentery)
  45. appendicitis
    inflammation of the appendix
  46. hernia
    protrusion of a part from its normal location
  47. hiatal hernia
    protrusion of a part of the stomach upward throught the hiatal opening in the diaphragm
  48. inguinal hernia
    protrusion of a loop of intestine through the layers of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region
  49. incarcerated hernia
    hernia that is swollen and fixed within a sac, causing an obstruction
  50. strangulated hernia
    hernia that is constricted, cut off from circulation, and likely to become gangrenous
  51. umbilical hernia
    protrusion of the intestine through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus
  52. intussusception
    prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of adjoining parts (intus = within; suscipiens = to take up)
  53. volvulus
    twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruciton (volvo = to roll)
  54. polyposis
    multiple polyps in the intestine and rectum with a high potential malignancy potential
  55. polyp
    tumor on a stalk
  56. procitis
    inflammation of the rectum and anus
  57. anal fistula
    abnormal tube-like passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum (fistula = pipe)
  58. hemorrhoid
    swollen, twisted vein (varicosity) in the anal region (haimorrhois = a vien likely to bleed)
  59. peritonitis
    inflammation of the peritoneum
  60. hepatitis
    inflammation of the liver
  61. hepatitis A
    infectious inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), usually transmitted orally through fecal matter contaminated food or water
  62. hepatitis B
    infectious inflammation of the liver caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) that is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids
  63. hepatitis C
    inflammation of the liver caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmitted by exposure to infected blood (rerely contracted sexually)
  64. cirrhosis
    chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue, most often caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency (cirrho = yellow)
  65. cholangitis
    inflammation of bile ducts
  66. cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gall bladder
  67. cholelithiasis
    presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
  68. choledocholithiasis
    presence of stones in the common bile duct
  69. pancreatitis
    inflammaiton of the pancreas

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