Geology 302 Chapter 3

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Geology 302 Chapter 3
2011-09-20 11:25:50
Geology 302 Chapter

Geology 302 Chapter 3
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  1. Why study minerals?
    minerals are the building blocks of our planet. Minerals make up rocks
  2. What is mineralogy?
    The study of minerals
  3. What is a mineral?
    is a nauturally occuring solid
  4. Naturally Occuring
    minerals are produced in nature
  5. Solid
    a solid state of matter that can maintain its shape indefinately. Liquids and gases are not minerals
  6. Crystalline Structure
    Atoms tha tmake up a mineral are not distributed randomly and cannot move around easily. Atoms are fixed in an orderly pattern. Mineralogist refer to the pattern itself. crystaline lattuce
  7. Definable Chemical Composition
    it is possible to write a chemical formula for a mineral. Some minerals contain only one elements. Most are compounds of two or more.
  8. Inorganic
    Organic chemicals are molecules containg carbon-hydrogen bonds. Almost all minerals are inorganic. 30 of the are formed thru geologic processes on organic materials.
  9. What defines a mineral?
    1. must have an orderly arrangement of atoms inside
  10. Element
    A pure substant thst csnnot be separated into other elements
  11. Atom
    The smallest piece of an element that retains the charateristics of an element. An atom consists of mucleaus surrounded be a cloud of orbiting electons
  12. Atomic Number
    numer of protons in an atom of an element.
  13. Atomic Weight
    Approx the # of protons plus neutrons in an atom of an element
  14. Ion
    an atom that is not neutral. An ion that has an excess negative charge (because it has more electrons than protons) is an anion
  15. Chemical bond
    an attractive force that holds 2 or ore attoms together.
  16. Molecule
    2 or more atoms bonded together. Atoms may be of the same element or different
  17. Compound
    a pure substance that can be subdivided into 2 or more elements.
  18. Chemical Formula
    a shorthand recipe thaat itemizes the various elements in a chemical and specifies their relative proportions.
  19. Chemical reaction
    a process that involves the breaking or forming of chemical bonds.
  20. Mixture
    a combination of two or more elements or compounds that can be separated without a chemical reaction. EX bran flakes and raisons
  21. Solution
    A type of material in which one chemical (the solute) dissolves (becomes completely incorporated) in another (the solvent). In solutions
  22. Precipitate
    A compound that forms when ions in liquid solution join together to create a solid that settles out of the solution. The process of forming solud frains by separation and settling from a solution.
  23. What is a crystal?
    a single
  24. What binds a crystal?
    Crystal faces that grow naturally as the mineral forms.
  25. What is inside a crystal?
    the way in which atoms are packed defines the crystal structure of the mineral.
  26. Polymorphs
    Two different minerals (such as diamond and graphite) that have the same composition but different crystal structures
  27. What controls the shape of a crystal?
    by the regular spacing of atoms. IF the crystal contains more than one type fo atom
  28. What does the pattern of the atoms or ions in a mineral display>?
  29. What are the 5 ways mineral crystals can form?
    They can form from the solidification of a melt (freezing of a liquid
  30. First step in forming a crystal?
    a chance formation of a seed. Once the seed exsists
  31. What is geode
    mineral lined cavity in rock
  32. How can you tell one mineral from another?
    Shape and color
  33. Color
    interaction with light. Each color has a different wave length. A mineral absorbs certain wavelengths
  34. Streak
    refers to the color of a powder produced by pulverizing the mineral. scraping it on an unglazed ceramic plate.
  35. Luster
    referest to the way a mineral surface scatters light. Geoscientists describe luster simply by comparring the appearance of the mineral with the appearance of a faminilar substance. silky
  36. Hardness
    measure of the relative ability of a mineral to resist scration. The atoms of a strong mineral are more tightly bound than a soft mineral. Diamond is the hardest mineral out there. Minerals are listed in a hardness of 1 to 5 via Friedrich Mohs.
  37. Mohs hardness scale
    listed 1 to 5. 5 can scratch all materials.
  38. Specific Gravity
    represents the density of the mineral to the weight of water.
  39. Crystal Habit
    referest to the shape ofa single crystal with well-formed crystal faces. or to the character of an aggregate of many well formed crystals that grew together as a group.
  40. Special Properties
    some minerals have distinctive properties that readily distinguish them from other minerals.
  41. Frature and cleavage
    Different minerals frature in different ways. Depending on the internal arrangement of the atoms
  42. what is cleavage
    if a mineral breaks to form distinct planar surfaces that have a specific orientation in relation to the crystal structure. it has a cleavage plane
  43. What is a conchoidal fracture?
    Materials that have no cleavage at all
  44. What are the mineral clases?
  45. Silicates
    The fundamental component of most in the earths crust is the SiO4_4 anionic group. 4 oxygen atoms surround a single silicon atom
  46. Oxides
    consist of metal cations bonded to oxygen anions. typical ones cobtain hematite and magnetite
  47. Sulfides
    Consist of a metal cation bonded to a sufide anion.
  48. Sulfates
    Consist of a metal cation bonded to the SO 2-4 group. Many form preciotitation out of water at or near the earths surface.
  49. Halides
    The anion in a halide is a halogen ion such as chloride or flouride. Rock salt. or fouride.
  50. Carbonates
    The molecule CO 2_3 serves as the anionic group. Calcuim and magnesium bond to this group
  51. Native Metals
    consist of pure masses of a single metal. Copper and gold.
  52. What makes up over 95% if the continental crust
    Silicate Minerals
  53. What is the SiO 4_4 anionic group?
    Most of the silicate minerals in the crust consist of fundamental building blocks SiO 4_4 called silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
  54. What is homgeneous?
    the same composition throughout (all minerals)
  55. What defines a mineral?
    homogeneous, naturally occuring, solid, definable chemical composition, crystal lattuce,
  56. What is the difference between a crystal and a mineral?
    a mineral is the material iteself, a crystal is the structure it extends in 3 directions (break a crystal, you get a mineral)
  57. How do crystals grow?
    3 ways, crystallization/freezing; perceptation; solid under higher temps;;;; they grow from a seed, grow out from the center, shape determined by shape of barrier.
  58. Who do you identify minerals?
    color, streak, luster, hardness
  59. Are all minerals more dense than water?
    Yes, measured by 0ing out beaker, weighing water, placing rock in water, subtracting the two #'s, and dividing it by the volume.
  60. What is the most abundant rock on the earths surface and what is it's measure of angles?
    Quartz: 120 degrees of two faces of the crystal
  61. What are the mineral classes?
    silicates: most abundant at surface, selica tetrahedron, 90% of crust; carbonates: electrical charge; Native metals: masses of a single metal element silver gold; Oxides: mixed with oxygen Iron Hermatite Rust oxidation; Sulfur-bearing: metals bonded to sulfur; Halides: contains anything chlorine, flourite, iodine (salt)